Cardiovascular Physiology-Blood & Lymphatics and immunity

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Jyn1983
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261369
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Cardiovascular Physiology-Blood & Lymphatics and immunity
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2014-02-10 22:30:41
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Cardiovascular Physiology Blood Lymphatics immunity
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Cardiovascular Physiology-Blood & Lymphatics and immunity
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  1. What two parts make up the Blood Composition?
    • 1. Plasma-fluid component
    • 2. Formed elements- cell component; includes 3 types of cells
  2. What are the 3 types of cells that make up the formed elements in the Blood Composition?
    • 1. Red Blood Cells, RBC or Erythrocytes
    • 2. White blood cells, WBC, or Leukocytes
    • 3. Platelets or Thrombocytes
  3. What measures the ratio of the number of formed elements to blood plasma?
    Hematocrit
  4. Transportation-
    movement through the body of things like gases- oxygen and carbon dioxide, nutrients- glucose and amino acids, ions- sodium, potassium, calcium, wastes- urea, hormones, etc.
  5. Regulation-
    blood controls internal conditions of the body like blood pressure, pH, temperature, water balance
  6. Protection-
    part of immune defenses using WBCs, clotting of blood
  7. Plasma
    The fluid part of blood
  8. Characteristics of Plasma
    yellowish color
  9. Plasma Composition
    • about 90-97% water
    • Electrolytes- glucose, amino acids, oxygen
    • Ions- sodium, potassium, calcium
    • Plasma proteins
  10. what is plasma without plasma proteins called
    Serum
  11. What are the 3 types of plasma proteins?
    • 1. Albumins
    • 2. Globulins
    • 3.Fibrinogens
  12. What is the function of Albumins?
    to maintain osmotic pressure which affects blood pressure
  13. What is the most common plasma protein?
    Albumins
  14. What are the 3 types of Globulins?
    • alpha globulins- transport fat and fat-soluble vitamins
    • beta globulins- transport fat and fat-soluble vitamins
    • gamma globulins- are antibodies
  15. What is the function of Fibrinogens?
    to be converted to fibrin to form blood clots
  16. This means to make new blood cells, does not specify type of cell made; occurs in the red bone marrow
    Hematopoiesis
  17. What is a generic blood cell found in red bone marrow; can become any of the different formed elements?
    Hemocytoblast
  18. where does RBC destruction occur-
    it occurs in the liver and spleen
  19. a decrease in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood
    anemia
  20. Pernicious anemia
    • Due to a lack of Vitamin B12 in the diet.
    • Causes a decrease in RBC number because this vitamin is necessary to make th RBC membrane.
    • Can be called dietary anemia
  21. -Fe- Deficiency Anemia
    • Due to a lack of Fe(iron) in the diet
    • Causes a decrease in the amount of Hb in the blood
    • Can also be called dietary anemia
  22. Aplastic Anemia
    • due to a problem with the bone forming cells in the red bone marrow due to poisoning, radiation, cancer, etc.
    • Causes a decrease in the RBC number
  23. Sickle-Cell Anemia
    • a genetic disorder of the RBC
    • Causes a deformed Hb to be produced
  24. What is it called when there are too many RBCs in the blood?
    polycythemia
  25. What is an increased number of WBCs; causes problems due to size clogging blood vessels?
    Leukocytosis
  26. What disorder has too few or decreased number of WBCs; causes problems due to inability to fight infections
    Leucopenia
  27. What has several different disorders characterized by more WBCs being made than RBCs iin the red bone marrow; fast production of WBCs makes them immature
    Leukemias
  28. What is a viral infection affecting WBCs, specifically lymphocytes
    Mononucleosis
  29. What are the two types of WBCs?
    • 1. Granulocytes
    • 2. Agranulocytes
  30. What are the 3 categories of Granulocytes?
    • 1. Neutrophil
    • 2. Eosinophil
    • 3. Basophil
  31. Which category of Granulocytes is the most common WBC?
    Neutrophil
  32. What are the two categories of Agranulocytes?
    • 1. Lymphocytes
    • 2. Monocytes
  33. This occurs as the damaged tissue releases chemicals that cause the blood vessel cut to vasoconstrict(closes the vessel so less blood leaves)
    vascular spasm
  34. this is when the chemical attracts platelets to the damaged area, the platelets pile up to form a plug, the soft clot
    platelet plug formation
  35. this is when a platelet releases an enzyme (prothrombinase) into the blood prothrombinase converts prothrombin in blood plasma to thrombin
    Coagulation
  36. a protein on the surface of the red blood cell that determines blood type.
    antigen
  37. plasma proteins in the blood that can bind with antigens from foreign red blood cells (not your own antigens)
    Antibodies
  38. agglutination or clumping of the foreign blood cells
    Antigen + Antibody
  39. Which pathway is cell activated?
    Extrinsic Pathway
  40. Which pathway is platelet activated?
    Intrinsic Pathway
  41. This occurs when the wrong type of blood is given to an individual
    Transfusion Reactions
  42. The Universal recipient blood-
    • has no antibodies
    • would be blood type AB+
    • You can give any blood type to an AB+ person in any emergency with no harmful effects.
  43. The universal donor blood-
    • has no antigens
    • would be blood type 0-
    • You can give 0- blood to anyone in an emergency with no harmful effects
  44. due to too many platelets; the blood forms clots called emboli at inappropriate times with no tissue damage
    Thromboembolitic disorder
  45. due to too few platelets; "free bleeder"- the damaged tissue is very slow to clot
    Thrombocytopenia
  46. due to an absence of a clotting factor needed to activate the formation of a blood clot; genetic, sex-linked disorder (meaning it is passed on the X chromosome)
    Hemophilia
  47. a percentage of red blood cells in a hematocrit of a person experiencing severe anemia would read?
    15%
  48. The red blood cell type that lacks a nucleus and organelles and cannot divide is?
    RBCs
  49. Aplastic anemia is caused by
    a decrease in RBCs
  50. Each hemoglobin molecule can carry            oxygen molecules
    4
  51. Type AB blood contains
    both antigens
  52. The part of the RBC responsible for determining the blood type is the
    antigen
  53. a severe allergic reaction, such as with organ rejection reactions, involves this type of WBC
    basophil
  54. Circulation with tubes and fluid, but no pump
    Lymphatics
  55. Functions of Lymphatic Circulation
    • 1. Return interstitial fluid to the blood
    • 2. Transport fats and fat-soluble vitamins from the digestive system to the blood
    • 3. Part of Immune Defenses-T-cell Lymphocytes- make cytotoxic chemicals.  B-cell Lymphocytes- make antibodies
  56. Clusters of regionally located organs; filter lymph to remove foreign cells-like infections, toxins and cancer cells; first site to check for metastasis of cancer (metastasis means spreading)
    Lymph nodes
  57. filters blood to remove wastes and old blood cells; open internal circulation, where blood is not kept inside blood vessels
    Spleen
  58. fluid of the lymphatic system; similar in composition to blood plasma, does not have plasma proteins and has more fat
    Lymph
  59. functional in a child but not in an adult; site where lymphocytes mature
    Thymus
  60. 3 sets of paired organs behind the nose and throat (pharynx); help fight infection that enters through the nose and mouth
    Tonsils
  61. also called adenoids; located behind the nasal cavity
    pharyngeal tonsils
  62. located in back of the throat (tonsils)
    Palatine tonsils
  63. located at the base of the tongue (tonsils)
    lingual tonsils
  64. collections of lymphocytes inside other organs to help fight infections that enter through that organ or organ system
    Lymphoid nodules
  65. site where lymphocytes are made or mature Red bone marrow and thymus
    Primary lymphatic organs
  66. help to fight infection by holding collections of lymphocytes; includes all the rest of the lymphoid organs: Lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils and lymphoid nodules
    Secondary lymphatic organs
  67. hair oil enzyme that kills pathogens
    Sebum
  68. salt concentration and chemicals to kill pathogens
    Perspiration
  69. Acidic pH to kill pathogens
    Gastric juice, Vaginal secretions
  70. Chemicals in the blood to fight pathogens
    Antimicrobials
  71. bind to Fe atoms to prevent microbes from obtaining it as a nutrient
    Transferrins
  72. prevent viruses from entering host cells so they can't divide
    Interferons
  73. 20 proteins on the cell membrane that enhance immune, allergic and inflammatory reations
    Complement system
  74. Lymphocytes in various parts of the body that can attack any pathogen
    Natural killer cells
  75. Process of engulfing and digesting pathogens; uses neutrophils and monocytes
    Phagocytosis
  76. when blood vessels to the damaged tissue open to allow more blood to flow through the tissue; this increases the amount of fluid filtered from the blood vessels
    Vasodilation
  77. non-specific resistance designed to keep a pathogen localized to a specific area of the body to aid with destroying the pathogen; involves 3 stages
    Inflammation response
  78. what are the three stages of Inflammation response
    • 1. Vasodilation
    • 2. Emigration
    • 3. Tissue repair
  79. involves the ability to fight specific diseases or infections using specific body defense mechanisms
    Specific Resistance/Immunity
  80. what are the two types of immunity?
    • 1. Cell-mediated immunity
    • 2. antibody-mediated(humoral) immunity
  81. What are the three stages of Antibody-mediated immunity?
    • 1. activation
    • 2.Proliferation
    • 3. Antibody production
  82. when the plasma cell divides to make one plasma cell and one memory B-cell
    Proliferation
  83. occurs the first time a pathogen is encountered; usually involves the development of symptoms as the body learns to fight the pathogen
    Primary immune response
  84. occurs any other time the same pathogen is encountered; the effector and memory B-cells can immediately begin attacking the pathogen; usually involves no to minor symptoms
    Secondary immune response
  85. the ability of the body to fight pathogens more quickly that have been previously encountered by the body
    Immunologic Memory
  86. What are the 4 types of immunity
    • 1. Naturally acquired active immunity
    • 2. Artificially acquired active immunity
    • 3. Naturally acquired passive immunity
    • 4. Artificially acquired passive immunity
  87. occurs as an injection of antibodies are given to a person who has a specific disease or infection; the antibodies come from another individual or may be synthetically produced
    Artificial acquired passive immunity
  88. occurs as the mother's antibodies are given to a newborn across the placenta or through breastmilk
    naturally acquired passive immunity
  89. occurs as you encounter the pathogen from the environment, have the symptoms of the infection or disease, and the body makes antibodies
    Naturally acquired active immunity
  90. occurs as you get an injection of some pathogen ( vaccination), may have minor symptoms of the illness, and the body makes antibodies
    Artificially acquired active immunity

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