Cardiovascular Physiology-Blood & Lymphatics and immunity
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What two parts make up the Blood Composition?
- 1. Plasma-fluid component
- 2. Formed elements- cell component; includes 3 types of cells
What are the 3 types of cells that make up the formed elements in the Blood Composition?
- 1. Red Blood Cells, RBC or Erythrocytes
- 2. White blood cells, WBC, or Leukocytes
- 3. Platelets or Thrombocytes
What measures the ratio of the number of formed elements to blood plasma?
movement through the body of things like gases- oxygen and carbon dioxide, nutrients- glucose and amino acids, ions- sodium, potassium, calcium, wastes- urea, hormones, etc.
blood controls internal conditions of the body like blood pressure, pH, temperature, water balance
part of immune defenses using WBCs, clotting of blood
The fluid part of blood
Characteristics of Plasma
- about 90-97% water
- Electrolytes- glucose, amino acids, oxygen
- Ions- sodium, potassium, calcium
- Plasma proteins
what is plasma without plasma proteins called
What are the 3 types of plasma proteins?
- 1. Albumins
- 2. Globulins
What is the function of Albumins?
to maintain osmotic pressure which affects blood pressure
What is the most common plasma protein?
What are the 3 types of Globulins?
- alpha globulins- transport fat and fat-soluble vitamins
- beta globulins- transport fat and fat-soluble vitamins
- gamma globulins- are antibodies
What is the function of Fibrinogens?
to be converted to fibrin to form blood clots
This means to make new blood cells, does not specify type of cell made; occurs in the red bone marrow
What is a generic blood cell found in red bone marrow; can become any of the different formed elements?
where does RBC destruction occur-
it occurs in the liver and spleen
a decrease in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood
- Due to a lack of Vitamin B12 in the diet.
- Causes a decrease in RBC number because this vitamin is necessary to make th RBC membrane.
- Can be called dietary anemia
-Fe- Deficiency Anemia
- Due to a lack of Fe(iron) in the diet
- Causes a decrease in the amount of Hb in the blood
- Can also be called dietary anemia
- due to a problem with the bone forming cells in the red bone marrow due to poisoning, radiation, cancer, etc.
- Causes a decrease in the RBC number
- a genetic disorder of the RBC
- Causes a deformed Hb to be produced
What is it called when there are too many RBCs in the blood?
What is an increased number of WBCs; causes problems due to size clogging blood vessels?
What disorder has too few or decreased number of WBCs; causes problems due to inability to fight infections
What has several different disorders characterized by more WBCs being made than RBCs iin the red bone marrow; fast production of WBCs makes them immature
What is a viral infection affecting WBCs, specifically lymphocytes
What are the two types of WBCs?
- 1. Granulocytes
- 2. Agranulocytes
What are the 3 categories of Granulocytes?
- 1. Neutrophil
- 2. Eosinophil
- 3. Basophil
Which category of Granulocytes is the most common WBC?
What are the two categories of Agranulocytes?
- 1. Lymphocytes
- 2. Monocytes
This occurs as the damaged tissue releases chemicals that cause the blood vessel cut to vasoconstrict(closes the vessel so less blood leaves)
this is when the chemical attracts platelets to the damaged area, the platelets pile up to form a plug, the soft clot
platelet plug formation
this is when a platelet releases an enzyme (prothrombinase) into the blood prothrombinase converts prothrombin in blood plasma to thrombin
a protein on the surface of the red blood cell that determines blood type.
plasma proteins in the blood that can bind with antigens from foreign red blood cells (not your own antigens)
agglutination or clumping of the foreign blood cells
Antigen + Antibody
Which pathway is cell activated?
Which pathway is platelet activated?
This occurs when the wrong type of blood is given to an individual
The Universal recipient blood-
- has no antibodies
- would be blood type AB+
- You can give any blood type to an AB+ person in any emergency with no harmful effects.
The universal donor blood-
- has no antigens
- would be blood type 0-
- You can give 0- blood to anyone in an emergency with no harmful effects
due to too many platelets; the blood forms clots called emboli at inappropriate times with no tissue damage
due to too few platelets; "free bleeder"- the damaged tissue is very slow to clot
due to an absence of a clotting factor needed to activate the formation of a blood clot; genetic, sex-linked disorder (meaning it is passed on the X chromosome)
a percentage of red blood cells in a hematocrit of a person experiencing severe anemia would read?
The red blood cell type that lacks a nucleus and organelles and cannot divide is?
Aplastic anemia is caused by
a decrease in RBCs
Each hemoglobin molecule can carry oxygen molecules
Type AB blood contains
The part of the RBC responsible for determining the blood type is the
a severe allergic reaction, such as with organ rejection reactions, involves this type of WBC
Circulation with tubes and fluid, but no pump
Functions of Lymphatic Circulation
- 1. Return interstitial fluid to the blood
- 2. Transport fats and fat-soluble vitamins from the digestive system to the blood
- 3. Part of Immune Defenses-T-cell Lymphocytes- make cytotoxic chemicals. B-cell Lymphocytes- make antibodies
Clusters of regionally located organs; filter lymph to remove foreign cells-like infections, toxins and cancer cells; first site to check for metastasis of cancer (metastasis means spreading)
filters blood to remove wastes and old blood cells; open internal circulation, where blood is not kept inside blood vessels
fluid of the lymphatic system; similar in composition to blood plasma, does not have plasma proteins and has more fat
functional in a child but not in an adult; site where lymphocytes mature
3 sets of paired organs behind the nose and throat (pharynx); help fight infection that enters through the nose and mouth
also called adenoids; located behind the nasal cavity
located in back of the throat (tonsils)
located at the base of the tongue (tonsils)
collections of lymphocytes inside other organs to help fight infections that enter through that organ or organ system
site where lymphocytes are made or mature Red bone marrow and thymus
Primary lymphatic organs
help to fight infection by holding collections of lymphocytes; includes all the rest of the lymphoid organs: Lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils and lymphoid nodules
Secondary lymphatic organs
hair oil enzyme that kills pathogens
salt concentration and chemicals to kill pathogens
Acidic pH to kill pathogens
Gastric juice, Vaginal secretions
Chemicals in the blood to fight pathogens
bind to Fe atoms to prevent microbes from obtaining it as a nutrient
prevent viruses from entering host cells so they can't divide
20 proteins on the cell membrane that enhance immune, allergic and inflammatory reations
Lymphocytes in various parts of the body that can attack any pathogen
Natural killer cells
Process of engulfing and digesting pathogens; uses neutrophils and monocytes
when blood vessels to the damaged tissue open to allow more blood to flow through the tissue; this increases the amount of fluid filtered from the blood vessels
non-specific resistance designed to keep a pathogen localized to a specific area of the body to aid with destroying the pathogen; involves 3 stages
what are the three stages of Inflammation response
- 1. Vasodilation
- 2. Emigration
- 3. Tissue repair
involves the ability to fight specific diseases or infections using specific body defense mechanisms
what are the two types of immunity?
- 1. Cell-mediated immunity
- 2. antibody-mediated(humoral) immunity
What are the three stages of Antibody-mediated immunity?
- 1. activation
- 3. Antibody production
when the plasma cell divides to make one plasma cell and one memory B-cell
occurs the first time a pathogen is encountered; usually involves the development of symptoms as the body learns to fight the pathogen
Primary immune response
occurs any other time the same pathogen is encountered; the effector and memory B-cells can immediately begin attacking the pathogen; usually involves no to minor symptoms
Secondary immune response
the ability of the body to fight pathogens more quickly that have been previously encountered by the body
What are the 4 types of immunity
- 1. Naturally acquired active immunity
- 2. Artificially acquired active immunity
- 3. Naturally acquired passive immunity
- 4. Artificially acquired passive immunity
occurs as an injection of antibodies are given to a person who has a specific disease or infection; the antibodies come from another individual or may be synthetically produced
Artificial acquired passive immunity
occurs as the mother's antibodies are given to a newborn across the placenta or through breastmilk
naturally acquired passive immunity
occurs as you encounter the pathogen from the environment, have the symptoms of the infection or disease, and the body makes antibodies
Naturally acquired active immunity
occurs as you get an injection of some pathogen ( vaccination), may have minor symptoms of the illness, and the body makes antibodies
Artificially acquired active immunity
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