Chapter 13

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  1. Primary Assessment
    Main purpose is to identify and manage immediately life-threatening conditions to the airway, breathing, or circulation
  2. Components of Primary Assessment
    • Form a general impression of the patient
    • Assess level of consciousness (mental status)
    • Assess the airway
    • Assess breathing
    • Assess oxygenation
    • Assess circulation
    • Establish patient priorities
  3. Penetrating Trauma
    A force that pierces the skin and body tissues
  4. Blunt Trauma
    Caused by a force that impacts or is applied to the body but is not sharp enough to penetrate it
  5. Chief Complaint
    Why did you call EMS today?
  6. In-Line Stabilization
    Bringing patient's head into a neutral in-line position and holding it there
  7. AVPU
    • Alert
    • Responds to Verbal stimulus
    • Responds to Painful stimulus
    • Unresponsive
  8. Flexion Posturing
    Also known as decorticate posturing, the patient arches the back and flexes the arms inward toward the chest

    sign of serious head injury
  9. Extension Posturing
    Also known as decerebrate posturing, the patient arches the back and extends the arms straight out parallel to the body

    Sign of serious head injury
  10. Occluded Airway
    A closed or blocked airway; immediately life threatening condition
  11. Patent Airway
    Open; will not survive without patent airway
  12. Apnea
    Absence of breathing

    Identified by no chest wall movement and no sensation or sound of air moving in and out of nose or mouth
  13. Dyspnea
    Difficulty in breathing
  14. Secondary Assessment
    Identify any additional injuries or conditions that may also be life threatening
  15. Components of Secondary Assessment
    • Conduct a physical exam
    • Take baseline vital signs
    • Obtain a history
  16. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
    A clear fluid that surrounds and cushions the brain and the spinal cord
  17. Paradoxical Movement
    Segments of the chest that are moving inward during inspiration and outward during exhalation, opposite to the direction of the rest of the chest
  18. Rapid Secondary Assessment
    Significant MOI, multiple injuries, altered mental status, or critical findings in primary assessment

    • Rapid secondary assessment (head to toe)
    • Baseline vital signs
    • History
  19. Modified Secondary Assessment
    Isolated injury with no significant MOI, no multiple injuries, alert and oriented mental status, and no critical finding in primary assessment

    • Modified secondary assessment(focused on injury site)
    • Baseline vital signs
    • History
  20. Brain Herniation
    Significant amount of swelling and/or bleeding to or around the brain creates excessive pressure within the skull and causes the brain to be compressed and pushed downward toward the brainstem
  21. Aspiration
    Patient breathing the blood into the lungs
  22. Orthopnea
    Inability to breathe or shortness of breath while lying flat
  23. Reassessment
    • Conducted following secondary assessment
    • Purposes are to determine any changes in the patient's condition and to assess the effectiveness of your emergency care
  24. Steps of Reassessment
    • Repeat the primary assessment
    • Reassess and record vital signs
    • Repeat the secondary assessment for the other complaints, injuries, or a change in the chief complaint
    • Check interventions
    • Note trends in the patient's condition
Card Set:
Chapter 13
2014-02-11 05:25:13

Patient Assessment
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