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  1. Cercozoans
    • Ameboid and flagellated organisms
    • Feed with threadlike pseudopodia
    • In freshwater marine waters, also
    • soils
    • Most heterotrophs, some parasites
    • One group are mixotrophic, arose
    • after second endosymbiosis 
    • One species is autotrophic
  2. Archeplastida
    • Monophyletic
    • groups, descendants from ancient protists that engulfed cyanobacteria
    • Include red algae, green algae and land plants
  3. Red algea
    • Phycoerythrin gives red dolor, masks green pigment
    • Abundant in warm waters of oceans
    • Most multicellular “seaweeds”
  4. Green algea
    • Similar chlorophyll to land plants
    • Charophytes 
    • Chlorophytes
    • 7000 species
    • Most freshwater some marine, few
    • terrestrial
    • Some single celled
    • Some colonial
    • Some multicellular
  5. Amebazoans
    • amoebas with lobe or tube shaped pseudopodia
    • Plasmodial slime molds- exists as
    • single mass, that is usually bright yellow or orange
    • Cellular slime molds- are single
    • celled and phagocyte their nutrition, can aggregate when food is scarce, these
    • are not a single mass like plasmodial slime molds
  6. Tubelinids
    • can be found in soils, freshwater and marine ecosystems
    • They are hetertophic, classic amoeba Amoeba proteus
  7. Entamoebas
    • Parasitic, they can live in human bodies, can cause dysentery 
    • They are able to lyse cells, ex.
    • Entamoeba histolytica
  8. Opiskothonts
    • monophyletic
    • group that includes fungi, animals and other protists
  9. Fungi feeding
    • do not ingest food but absorb it from their environment
    • feed on nonliving organisms
    • can produce and release hydrolytic enzymes
    • some use enzymes to penetrate plant cell walls and absorb nutrients
  10. Fungi structure
    • multicellular filaments or single cells 
    • have hyphae 
    • cell walls made out of chitin
  11. Hyphae
    • a network of tiny filaments 
    • tubular cell walls surrounding plasma membrane and cytoplasm
  12. Hyphae can be...
    divided into "cells" by cross walls called septa
  13. Fungi with no septa are
    • coenocytic fungi 
    • have continuous cytoplasm
  14. A mass of hyphae is called...
    • mycelium
    • spreads into material fungus feeds on
    • maximizes surface to volume ratio for absorption
  15. Some hyphae help the organism feed on...
    • living organisms
    • some trap and kill living organisms
  16. Help fungi extract nutrients form or exchange nutrients with plants
  17. Mychorrihzae
    • aka fungus root
    • mutually beneficial relations between plant root and fungi
    • 2 types
  18. Endomychorizal fungi
    sheaths of hyphae over root surface that grow in to extracellular spaces
  19. Arbuscular mychoriza
    • hyphae push into root sell walls 
    • invagination
  20. Fungi undergo _____ and _____ reproduction and produce _____
    • sexual and asexual 
    • produce spores
  21. Fungi sexual reproduction
    • 1. 2 different mating types extend hyphae and 2. they fuse known as plasmogamy 
    • 3. after fusion it is called a heterokaryon 
    • 4. fusion of 2 haploid nuclei called karyogamy 
    • 5. zygote is produced (diploid)
    • 6. meiosis produces spore (haploid) 
    • 7. germinate and produce new mycelia
  22. Fungi asexual reproduction
    • budding 
    • can produce haploid spores using filaments
  23. phylogeny of fungi suggests...
    ancestor was single-celled flagellated and aquatic
  24. Fungi, animals and protisit a group...
  25. Fungi are unicellular...
  26. Animals are closer to unicellular...
  27. Green slime
    cyanobacteria, algea, fungi,
  28. Chytrids
    • in lakes, soils hydrotheraml vents
    • only fungi with flagellate spores called zoospores
    • many decomposers 
    • some parasites
  29. Zygomycetes
    • hyphae are coenocytic
    • some parasite, commensals, many molds
  30. Glomerocyetes
    • important as arbuscualr mychroriza
    • were once considered zygomycetes
  31. Ascomycetes sexual reproduction
    • different mating types form ascus after plasmogamy 
    • after karoygamy form sygote that goes thru meiosis 
    • then produce spores called ascospores inside asci 
    • asci with ascospores inside ascocarp 
    • then ascocarp are realeased.
  32. Ascomycetes
    make spores called conidia at tips of mycelia called conidiophore 
  33. Blasidiomycetes
    • fungi, shelf fungi, puffball fungi
    • can decompose wood (lignin) and other plant material 
    • many mutualistic but also parasitic
  34. Fungi plays important roles in ecoysytem and human life by....
    • decomposers
    • mutualists
    • parasites
    • practical human uses
Card Set:
2014-02-11 06:09:06
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