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Behavior Management definition
all those actions and conscious inactions teachers and parents engage in to enhance the probability that children, individually and in groups, will develop effective behaviors that are personally fulfilling, productive, and socially acceptable
Behavior Management Goal
to increase behavior conductive to learning and replace undesirable behavior.
- who shall decide who will be the manager of behavior? Whose behavior is to be managed?
- Who will control those who strive to control behavior?
- What type of interventions shall be applied? Why will they be applied? Who determines that they are legitimate? Why have they been determined to be legitimate?
Principle of Normalization
to let the person with a disability or who varies from his or her peers obtain an existence as close to the "norm" as possible.
Principle of Fairness
fundamental fairness- due process of law-which requires that in decision making affecting one's life, liberty, or vital interests, the elements of due process will be observed, including the right to notice, to a fair hearing, to representation by counsel, to present evidence, and to appeal an adverse decision.
Principle of Respect
one's right to be treated as a human being and not as an animal or statistic.
the goal of all behavior management, is the process of attaining control over one's personal behavior in a variety of circumstances in association with many individuals and groups.
reauthorized IDEA and aligned accountability systems for students with those described in the NCLB
IEP Process and IDEA Improvement Act
- requires benchmarks and short-term objective for students who do not take districtwide or statewide assessments.
- Plans for the transition to work and living in the community must be present in the IEP no later than 16 years old
- children must be at least 3 for IEP
Due Process and IDEA Improvement
students with disabilities have the right to remain in school during an appeal on a school code violation that can result in removal for more than 10 days. unless the violation involves drugs, weapons, or dangerous behavior
students do not need to meet the criteria of IDEA to receive accommodations and services. If a student has a mental or physical impairment that has a significant impact on a major life activity- such as learning- he or she may receive accommodations and services.
- Gun-Free School Act
- states to receive funds under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act have zero tolerance for weapons in the schools
- weapon is defined as guns, bombs, grenades, rockets,and missiles.
Elements of an IEP
- 3 parts
- 1. a written statement including a description of the student's present level of academic achievement and functional performance
- 2. a statement of measurable annual goals- including both academic and functional goals- that support the child in making progress in the general curriculum or to meet other educational needs that result from the disability.
- 3.how the student's progress toward those goals will be measured and reported.
Developmental and constructivist model definition
whether students develop as persons and progress through developmental tasks
Biobehavioral Model definition
emphasis on organic origins of human behavior
Ecological Model Definition
the impact of the environment on human behavior
Behavioral Model definition
scientific approach to the examination of behavior- including verbal behavior and private events.
Integrative Framework definition
behavior is the result of the interaction between the child and the unique environments in which the child functions
those with the potential to have the greatest positive effect on a student's behavior.
characteristics of an effective teacher
- dedicated to teaching and facilitating learning and growth
- caring for students, parents, colleagues, and personal well-being
- leaders to students, parents, and colleagues
- able to organize and manage a classroom, behavior and time
- enthusiastic towards teaching and students
- able to motivate students
- leaders themselves
- in tune with the cultures and subcultures within which the, their students, and their students' families live and work
- engaged in a rich a varied intellectual life
5 principles of management
- 1. reinforcement is dependent on the exhibition of the target behavior
- 2.The target behavior is to be reinforced immediately after it is exhibited
- 3.During the initial stage of the behavior change process, the target behavior is reinforced each time it is exhibited
- 4.When the target behavior reaches a satisfactory level, it is reinforced intermittently
- 5.If tangible reinforcers are applied, social reinforcers are always applied with them
Continuous schedule of reinforcement
requires presentation of the reinforcer immediately after each occurrence of the target behavior
Fixed ratio schedule
the reinforcer is presented after a specific number of appropriate responses are exhibited by the child
variable ration schedule
the ratio of reinforcer presentation varies around the response mean or average
fixed interval schedule
a specific period of time must elapse before the reinforcer is presented
variable interval schedule
presentation of the reinforcer is based on a behavioral response mean or average
presentation of a desirable reinforcer after a behavior has been exhibited.
removal of a reinforcer that is sustaining or increasing a beahvior
the removal of an already operating aversive stimulus
- addition of an adversive stimulus
- subtraction of a pleasurable item or activity
behavior reinforced in one situation will be exhibited in another situation
we learn that we act one way in one situation and another way in a different situation.
effects of consequences
- positive reinforcement increases the target behavior
- negative reinforcement may increase or decrease behavior depending on the target behavior
- punishment and extinction decrease the target behavior