Bones and Skeletal Tissues Chapter 6

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Morgan_001
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261395
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Bones and Skeletal Tissues Chapter 6
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2014-02-13 17:45:26
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anatomy bones skeletal tissues
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A&P I bones and skeletal tissues
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  1. true organs
    multiple different tissue types
  2. The skeletal system includes:
    • bones
    • cartilages 
    • ligaments 
    • other connective tissues
  3. What is the job of the connective tissues?
    stabilize and interconnect
  4. What tissue type are bones?
    mainly connective
  5. What are the 6 primary functions of the skeletal system?
    • 1. Support
    • 2. Storage of minerals and lipids 
    • 3. Blood cell production (red bone marrow)
    • 4. Protection 
    • 5. Hormone production 
    • 6. Leverage (change direction and magnitude of force from muscles)
  6. What type of tissue makes up yellow bone marrow?
    adipose
  7. What are the 3 mains types of cartilages?
    • 1. Hyaline 
    • 2. Elastic 
    • 3. Fibrocartilage
  8. Which type of cartilage:
    is most common
    has a matrix that appears glassy, blue-white 
    is stiff but has flexible support?
    Hyaline
  9. Which type of cartilage:
    is like hyaline but with many more elastic fibers 
    tolerates distortion without damage?
    Elastic
  10. Which type of cartilage:
    resists compression
    prevents bone to bone contact 
    limits movement?
    Fibrocartilage
  11. Which type of cartilage is in your ear?
    Elastic
  12. Which type of cartilage is in your nose?
    Hyaline
  13. Which type of cartilage is in your joints?
    Hyaline
  14. Which type of cartilage is between your intervertebral discs?
    Fibrocartilage
  15. Which type of cartilage makes up your costal cartilage on your ribs?
    Hyaline
  16. Which type of cartilage makes up your pubic symphysis?
    Fibrocartilage
  17. Which type of cartilage makes up your meniscus?
    Fibrocartilage
  18. What are the 2 groups in bone classification?
    Axial and Appendicular
  19. To talk about bones we must look at their:
    • shape
    • feature surface markings 
    • internal structure
  20. On average, how many bones are in the adult human body?
    206
  21. What are the 6 broad categories of bones based on their shape?
    • 1. Sutural 
    • 2. Sesamoid 
    • 3. Irregular 
    • 4. Short 
    • 5. Flat
    • 6. Long
  22. Which bone shape is:
    also known as wormian bones
    small, flat, irregularly shaped
    between flat bones of the skull
    vary between individuals in number and shape 
    basically small bone chips
    Sutural
  23. Which bone shape is:
    small, flat
    develop inside of tendons 
    near joints 
    vary in number and location with 1 exception
    Sesamoid
  24. What is the 1 exception to the sesamoid shaped bones?
    patella
  25. Which bone shape is:
    complex shapes 
    short, flat, notched, or ridged 
    vertebrae, pelvic bones, some skull bones
    Irregular
  26. Which type of bone shape is:
    small and bony 
    in carpals and tarsals
    Short
  27. Which bone shape is:
    thin parallel surfaces 
    protection for underlying soft tissues 
    provide surface for muscle attachment 
    skull, sternum, ribs, scapula
    Flat
  28. Which bone shape is:
    long and slender
    in appendages 
    includes the larges bone of the body
    Long
  29. Where can you find irregular bones?
    vertebrae, pelvic bones, some skull bones
  30. Where can you find short bones?
    carpals and tarsals
  31. Where can you find flat bones?
    skull, sternum, ribs, scapulae
  32. Where can you find long bones?
    femur, humerus, metacarpals/tarsals, radium, etc.
  33. What are some characteristics of internal and external bone marking features?
    • elevation
    • projection
    • depressions
    • grooves
    • tunnels
    • etc.
  34. What type of cartilage surrounds the compact bone?
    articular
  35. What are the parts of the typical long bone?
    • Diaphysis 
    • Epiphyses 
    • Metaphyses 
    • Medullary cavity
    • Periosteum
  36. Diaphyses
    the shaft of the long bone
  37. Epiphyses
    the heads or ends of a long bone
  38. Metaphyses
    the neck of a long bone; where the diaphysis and epiphyses attach
  39. medullary cavity
    central cavity of a long bone; contains yellow or red bone marrow
  40. endosteum
    • connective tissue membrane covering internal bone surfaces 
    • inside the medullary cavity
  41. periosteum
    double-layered connective tissue that covers and nourishes the bone
  42. Where is the periosteum NOT located in the bone?
    joints
  43. Supporting connective tissue contains:
    • specialized cells 
    • extracellular protein fibers
    • ground substance
  44. Bone matrix contains __________ salts.
    calcium
  45. Osteoid before __________
    calcification
  46. osteoid
    uncalcified bone matrix
  47. osteocytes
    bone cells
  48. lacunae
    small open space in the matrix
  49. canaliculi
    small holes that allow for the exchange of materials
  50. Osteocytes are within the lacunae except for...
    canaliculi
  51. True or false. 
    Bone matrix in compact bone is the same as in spongy bone.
    True
  52. In the bone matrix, cells account for about __% of mass.
    2
  53. ___________ fibers provide framework in the bone matrix.
    collagen
  54. What are the 4 types of bone cells?
    • 1. osteocytes 
    • 2. osteoblasts 
    • 3. osteoprogenitor cells 
    • 4. osteoclasts
  55. Which type of bone cell is:
    mature bone cells (majority of cells)
    occupy lacuna surrounded by lamellae 
    cannot divide
    osteocytes
  56. Where can you find osteocytes?
    canaliculi
  57. What are the 2 major functions of osteocytes?
    • 1. maintain protein and mineral content of matrix 
    • 2. participate in repair of damaged bone
  58. Which type of bone cell:
    produces osteoid 
    elevates Ca phosphate levels above solubility limit
    osteoblasts
  59. lamella
    layers of calcified matrix
  60. osteoblasts calcify themselves into __________.
    osteocytes
  61. Osteocytes are ___________ surrounded by bone.
    osteoblasts
  62. Which type of bone cell:
    is squamous stem cells 
    daughter cells differentiate into osteoblasts 
    important in fracture repair
    osteoprogenitor cells
  63. Where can you find osteoprognitor cells?
    inner layer of periosteum and endosteum
  64. Which type of bone cell:
    remove and recycle bone matrix 
    giant cells with 50+ nuclei 
    derived from stem cells that produce monocytes 
    bone breaking cells
    osteoclasts
  65. _______________ are building up bone mass while ________________ are breaking bone mass.
    Osteoblasts, osteoclasts
  66. Which cell type is a stem cell?
    osteogenic cell
  67. matrix- synthesizing cell responsible for bone growth
    osteoblast
  68. mature bone cell that monitors and maintains the mineralized bone matrix
    osteocyte
  69. bone-resorbing cell
    osteoclast
  70. How are osteocytes arranged in compact bone?
    concentric layers
  71. osteon or Haversian system
    the structural unit of compact bone
  72. central or Haversian canal
    runs through the core of each osteon; contains small blood vessels and nerve fibers that serve the osteon's cells
  73. perforating or Volkmann's canals
    lie at right angles to the long axis of the bone and connect the blood and nerve supply of the medullary cavity to the central canals
  74. What are the 2 types of canals in compact bone?
    • 1. Central canal or Haversian canal
    • 2. Perforating canal or Volkmann's canal
  75. What are the 3 types of lamellae?
    • 1. Concentric 
    • 2. Interstitial
    • 3. Circumferential
  76. Concentric lamellae
    around central canal
  77. Interstitial lamellae
    fill in the gaps of between forming osteons
  78. Circumferential lamellae
    outside surface of the bone
  79. trabeculae
    forms meshwork of bundle fibers in spongy bone
  80. True or false. 
    Spongy bone contains no capillaries or venules in its matrix.
    True
  81. Where does diffusion occur in spongy bone?
    along canaliculi
  82. What are the 2 types of bone marrow?
    • 1. Red
    • 2. Yellow
  83. Which type of bone marrow is between trabeculae?
    red
  84. hematopoeisis
    the formation of blood cells
  85. Where does hematopoeisis occur?
    red bone marrow
  86. True or false.
    Red bone marrow can transition into yellow bone marrow as you get older but can transition back if needed.
    True
  87. What is the time period for bone growth and development?
    6 weeks after fertilization until around 25 years old
  88. ossification or osteogenesis
    deposition of calcium salts into hyaline cartilage
  89. Development and growth of bone depend on the balance between:
    • bone formation and bone resorption
    • osteoblast and osteoclast function
  90. What are the 2 types of ossification?
    • 1. Membranous/ Intramembranous 
    • 2. Endochondral
  91. membranous ossification
    • mostly flat bones
    • skull bones and scapula
  92. ednochondral ossification
    replacing of hyaline cartilage with ossified bone matrix
  93. exercise stimulates the ___________, making them stronger
    osteoblasts
  94. What are the 5 stages of endochondral ossification?
    • 1. Bone collar around diaphysis 
    • 2. Primary ossification center in center of diaphysis 
    • 3. Periosteal bud invades cavity 
    • 4. Diaphysis elongates and marrow cavity forms 
    • 5. Epiphyses ossify
  95. At which stage in endochondral ossification does spongy bone form?
    3. Periosteal but invades cavity
  96. When children are born, their epiphyses are completely ____________ cartilage.
    hyaline
  97. What happens during appositional growth?
    there is an increase in bone diameter
  98. What causes the increase in bone diameter during appositional growth?
    inner layer of periosteum differentiates into osteoblasts
  99. At epiphyseal plate, chondrocytes produce __________.
    cartilage
  100. chondrocyte
    mature cell of cartilage
  101. During ____________ growth, osteoblasts turn cartilage into bone.
    longitudinal
  102. True or false.
    So long as chondrocytes stay ahead of osteoblasts, bone elongates.
    True
  103. At puberty, hormones speed up ___________.
    osteoblasts
  104. Fractures may be classified by:
    • Position of bone ends after fracture
    • Completeness of fracture
    • Whether bone ends penetrate skin
    • Type of fracture
  105. comminuted fracture
    bone fragments into 3 or more pieces
  106. When are you most likely to see a comminuated fracture?
    in the elderly
  107. compression fracture
    bone is crushed
  108. Where are you most likely to find a compression fracture?
    common in porous bones; bones subject to extreme trauma, as in a fall
  109. spiral fracture
    ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone
  110. What is the most common way to get a spiral fracture?
    sports
  111. epiphyseal fracture
    epiphysis separates from the diaphysis along the epiphyseal plate
  112. Where do epiphyseal fractures tend to occur?
    where cartilage cells are dying and calcification of the matrix is occurring
  113. depressed fracture
    broken bone portion is pressed inward
  114. Where are depressed fractures most typical?
    skull
  115. greenstick fracture
    bone breaks incompletely; only one side of the shaft breaks, the other side bends
  116. Greenstick fractures are most common in what age of people?
    children and athletes of upper teens and early 20s
  117. 4 major stages of simple fracture repair:
    • 1. Hematoma forms
    • 2. Fibrocartilaginous callus forms
    • 3. Bony callous forms 
    • 4. Bone remodeling occurs
  118. When talking about fracture repair, what does reduction mean?
    the lining up of the broken ends of the bone
  119. complex fracture
    you have to line the bones up so they can grow back together
  120. simple fracture
    bones are close enough together to grow back on their own
  121. At what stage during simple fracture repair may you be able to remove a cast?
    3 (bony callous forms)

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