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What modalities are carried by the cranial nerves?
What in the anterior pole of the forebrain?
Front part of the brain (frontal lobe)
What is the posterior part of the forebrain?
Back part of the brain
The superior and inferior surfaces of the forebrain can also be called (ventral and dorsal...which is which)?
- superior = dorsal
- inferior = ventral
What structures make up the forebrain?
- telencephalon = cerebral hemispheres
- diencephalon = thalamus + hypothalamus + subthalamus
What are the components of the brainstem?
midbrain + pons + medulla
Name major sulci (2), fissues (3) & gyri (2)
- You also have:
- - Calcarine fissure - on the medial surface of occipital lobe
- - Parieto-occipital sulcus - on medial surface separating parietal and occipital lobes
What is the limbic lobe?
On the medial aspect of the brain - surrounds the ventricular system. It is involved in regulation of emotion and memory.
What can you see on the anterior surface of the midbrain?
- cerebral peduncles (interpeduncular fossa between them)
- - mamillary bodies
What can you see on the posterior surface of the midbrain?
- superior & inferior colliculus
What can you see on the anterior surface of the pons?
- NOTHING! just basilar pons
What can you see on the posterior surface of the pons?
- cerebellar peduncles (superior, middle, inferior)
What can you see on the anterior surface of the medulla?
- - pyramids
- - decussation of the pyramids
- - olives
What can you see on the posterior surface of the medulla?
- dorsal columns (fasciculus cuneatus and gracilus)
Identify on the anterior brainstem
Identify on the posterior brainstem
What is in gray matter?
Neuron cell bodies
What is in white matter? Where is it in the brain vs the spinal cord?
- Myelinated axons of neurons
- - white is deep in the brain and superficial in the spinal cord
What are the 3 types of fibre tracts in the CNS?
- 1. Association - connect areas on the same side of the brain
- 2. Commissural - connect same area on the R & L brain
- 3. Projection - connect higher & lower centers (i.e. brain to spinal cord and vice versa)
Identify the internal capsule
Identify the corpus callosum
What are the structures of the diencephalon & what are their individual functions?
- Thalamus - organizing sensory information
- Hypothalamus - endocrine system, thermoregulation
- Pituitary - endocrine system
What structures are part of the basal ganglia?
- - striatum (caudate nucleus + putamen)
- - globus pallidus
- - substantia nigra
- - nucleus accumbens
- - subthalamic nucleus
What makes up the limbic system?
- Parts of the telencephalon, diencephalon, and mesencephalon including:
- olfactory bulbs, hippocampus, amygdala, anterior thalamic nuclei, fornix, columns of fornix, mammillary body, septum pellucidum, habenular commissure, cingulate gyrus, Parahippocampal gyrus, limbic cortex, and limbic midbrain areas
Identify thalamus & hypothalamus
Identify nuclei of basal ganglia
Name 3 meningeal layers & characteristics of each?
- Dura - tough, thickest (2 layers - peiosteal & meningeal)
- Arachnoid - middle, wispy layer which is tight to dura. Connected to pia via arachnoid trabeculae.
- Pia - innermost fine layer, directly adhered to brain (follows gyri and sulci)
Name 2 dural reflections?
- 1. Falx cerebri - separates R & L cerebral hemispheres
- 2. Tentorium cerebelli - separates cerebrum from cerebellum
Meningeal layers (identify)
What is an epidural hematoma?
- bleeding on top of the dura, usually from the middle meningeal artery
What is a subdural hematoma?
- bleeding between the dura and arachnoid, usually from tearing of bridging vein
What is a subarachnoid bleed?
- bleeding in subarachnoid space, usually from cerebral blood vessels
What causes congenital hydrocephalus?
- build-up of CSF in the brain
What would you like to do?
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