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Observational research method
Advantages: Greater control, children are all in the same context
Disadvantages: Less natural, Children can behave differently
Observational research method
Advantages: In their usual environments, prevents the observer from influencing behavior. Reveals social interaction processes. Natural environment.
Disadvantages: Difficult to determine what is most influential. Many important behaviors only occur occasionally.
types of interviews: Clinical and Sturctured
Clinical: interviewer has prepared questions but can follow up with individualized questions.
Structured: They only use prepared questions.
Self report research method
Advantages: they can put their thoughts into their own words and can get in-depth information about each individual child.
Disadvantages: Often biased and it can be difficult for them to recall things that happened in the past.
Self report research method
Advantages: Gather a lot of info from a wide amount of people or children.
Disadvantages: little depth and can be inaccurate.
psycho physiology measures
Heart Rate, arousal, and brain regions
Heart rate when babies are interested
measures states of arousal (electric levels)
can measure specific activity in certain brain regions
Reliability vs validity
Validity: Methods measure what they are supposed to measure
Reliability: Consistency or repetition of measures
ex// Your best friend tells you your other best friend broke up with their boyfriend. they are reliable not valid.
Experimental research design
Use it when you want to control something. Dependent and independent variables. science.
Correlation research design
Measure relationship between two variables but do not control them.
Relationship between correlation and causation
Correlation does not imply causation
Cross-sectional research design
- Examine different children at different ages.
- Can't show how individuals change over time.
Longitudinal research design
Follow the same children over time. Takes a long time.
Habituation vs dishabituation paradigm
Habituation: change in attention with repetition. (boring)
Dishabituation: Recovering the attention of infants. They notice a change. (exciting)
- -Starts with fertilization and ends with implantation.
- -Rapid cell division occurs
From center outward
- -Starts with attachment to the uterine wall and ends with formation of bone cells.
- -Develops life support system, organs, some movement occurs (mother cannot feel this)
- -Heart starts beating
- -Formation of neural tube
- -proximodistal development
- -Starts with formation real bones and ends with birth
- -Major growth occurs
- -Mother starts to feel movements
- -Senses grow
- -Cephalocaudal development (head to toe)
- -Practice being babies (thumb sucking, breathing)
- -sleeping patterns
first movements felt by mother
- Environmental agents that can cause harm to a fetus.
- Ex: alcohol, raw fish, stress, litter boxes, drugs
Which stage is most susceptible to teratogons?
Embryonic stage: because of major organ development
Low birth weight babies
Premature and small for gestational age
- Sucking finger
- Adaptive: feeding reflex
- turning head toward touch
- Adaptive: feeding
- spontaneous grasp
- prep for voluntary grasp
- Startle reflex
- responds to being startled, to show sense of danger
- Toes fan out and curl
- We don't know the function of this weird baby thing
REM makes up for visual absence during sleep
Recognition of smells
- At 6 days old and on babies start to recognize their mothers smell.
- (Breast pad study)
They develop hearing in the womb, and can hear mothers voice and recognize and prefer it. (Cat in the Hat study, preferred the story read to them in womb by mother)
Limitations in vision
- getting and reading an image
- Cant focus on an object
- and catch only 2% of light.
- (eyes not fully developed)
Kinetic cues (motion parallax)
objects closer move faster than those far away.
Pictorial cues (interposition)
near objects block far objects
Pictorial cues (relative size)
Closer objects appear larger
Testing pictorial cues in infants. (Yonas studies)
testing depth perception. develops after 7 months
Visual Cliff Study (Major results)
After 9 months the baby develops fear of crossing deep looking side.
Visual Cliff Study (Social referencing results)
- If it looks shallow enough they will cross even if their mom tells them not to.
- If it looks too deep they will not cross even if their mom tells them to
- If they are unsure they will listen to their mom
Assimilation vs accomodations
assimilation: translate new info to fit existing knowledge
accommodation: changing knowledge based on new info
Together they balance to create a stable understanding
Piagets 4 stages
- lack object permanence
- developing senses and motor
During this stage, children do not yet understand concrete logic, cannot mentally manipulate information, and are unable to take the point of view of other people.
Can't see others perspectives
focused on appearance, and reality.
inanimate objects get lifelike qualities
link events that are close in time, do not understand true cause and effect relationships.
success with logical and basic knowledge. have trouble with abstract reasoning.
- master abstract reasoning.
- Develop moral views gain insight on different views
modified number conservation task
- Gelman study
- -smaller numbers
- -different numbers (2 vs 3) who is the winner?
unit vs group label
- markman study
- couldnt differentiate number of soldiers but could recognize that the groups were equal
Magic show studies
- 4 and 5 year olds could explain everyday transformations
- 4 year olds thought magic was real
- 5 year olds knew it was trickery.
- Children learned from their parents
scale model studies
children did not understand that the scale model was a representation of the room, but understood the picture of the room was a representation of it
- dual representation is a need for scale model tasks so that kids can represent something for a real object.
- shrinking machine
evaluating piagets theory
- he was wrong, object permanence was found during younger ages.
- development is gradual and not invariant.