Anatomy & Physiology Ch1
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Study of the structure body parts and their relationship to one another
The study of the function of the body. How the body parts work and carry out their life-sustaining activities. Focuses on events at the cellular or molecular level.
Macroscopic (Gross) Anatomy
- The study of large body structures visible to the naked eye.
- Ex: heart, lungs, and kidneys
- All the structures in a particular region examined at the same time.
- Ex: Bone, muscles, blood vessels, nerves, etc.
- The study of system by system.
- Ex: When studying cardiovascular, one would examine the heart and blood vessels of the entire body.
- The study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface.
- Ex: Identifying bulging mucscles beneath a bodybuilder's skin.
The study of the structures too small to be seen with the naked eye.
Most studies use thin slices of body tissue that are stained and mounted on slides to be examined under a microscope.
- A subdivision of microscopic anatomy.
- The study of the cells of the body.
- A subdivision of micorscopic anatomy.
- The study of the tissues.
The study of the structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span.
- A subdivision of developmental anatomy
- The study of developmental changes that occur before birth.
Studies the structural changes caused by disease.
Studies internal structures as visualized by X-ray images or specialized scanning procedures.
The study of the structure of biological molecules.
Feeling organs with your hands.
Listening to organs with a stethoscope.
kidney functions and urine production.
Explains the workings of the nervous system.
examines the operation of the heart and blood vessels.
Principal of complimentarity of structure and function
- What a structure can do depends on its specific form.
- Function always reflects structure
Level of Structural Organization
- 1. Chemical
- 2. Cellular
- 3. Tissue
- 4. Organ
- 5. Organ System
- 6. Organismal
Chemical level-1st in the hierachy
- The simplest level in structural hierachy.
- 1. Atom, tiny building blocks of matter, combine to form molecules.
- 2. Molecules associate in specific ways to form organelles, the basic component of the microscopic cells.
- 3.Cells are the smallest units of living things.
Cellular Level-2nd in hierachy
Cells are the smallest units of living things.
Tissue level-3rd in the hierachy
Tissues are groups of similar cells that have a common function.
4 Types of Tissues
- 1. Epithelium
- 2. Muscle
- 3. Connective
- 4. Nervous
Organ-4th in hierachy
Discrete structure composed of at least two tissue types (usually 4 types) that performs a specific function for the body.
Organ system-5th in hierachy
Extremely complex functions become possible. Organs that wok togethe to accomplish a common purpose.
Ex: Heart and blood vessels of the cardiovascular system circulate blood continuously to carry oxygen and nutrients to all body cells.
- Integumentary (Skin)
Organismal-6th in hierachy-Highest Level
Represents the sum total of all structural lovels working together to keep up alive.
- Includes the activities promoted by the muscular system.
- Also occurs when substances such as blood, foodstuffs, and urine are propelled through the internal organs of the cardiovascular, digestive, and urinary systems.
Muscle cell's ability to move by shortening
Provides the bony framework that the muscles pull on as they work.
Ability to sense changes (which serve as stimuli) in the environment and then espond to them.
Breaking down of ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood.
- Includes all chemical reactions that occur within body cells.
- Regulated largely by hormones secreted by endocrine system glands.
Breaking down substances into simpler building blocks.
Synthesizing more complex cellular structures from simpler substances
Uses nutrients and oxygen to produce ATP
Eneryg rich molecules that power cellular activity.
Process of removing wastes from the body.
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