Anatomy & Physiology Ch1

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Anatomy & Physiology Ch1
2010-07-09 14:14:28

Ch 1
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  1. Anatomy
    Study of the structure body parts and their relationship to one another
  2. Physiology
    The study of the function of the body. How the body parts work and carry out their life-sustaining activities. Focuses on events at the cellular or molecular level.
  3. Macroscopic (Gross) Anatomy
    • The study of large body structures visible to the naked eye.
    • Ex: heart, lungs, and kidneys
  4. Regional anatomy
    • All the structures in a particular region examined at the same time.
    • Ex: Bone, muscles, blood vessels, nerves, etc.
  5. Systemic anatomy
    • The study of system by system.
    • Ex: When studying cardiovascular, one would examine the heart and blood vessels of the entire body.
  6. Surface Anatomy
    • The study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface.
    • Ex: Identifying bulging mucscles beneath a bodybuilder's skin.
  7. Microscopic Anatomy
    The study of the structures too small to be seen with the naked eye.

    Most studies use thin slices of body tissue that are stained and mounted on slides to be examined under a microscope.
  8. Cytology
    • A subdivision of microscopic anatomy.
    • The study of the cells of the body.
  9. Histology
    • A subdivision of micorscopic anatomy.
    • The study of the tissues.
  10. Developmental Anatomy
    The study of the structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span.
  11. Embryology
    • A subdivision of developmental anatomy
    • The study of developmental changes that occur before birth.
  12. Pathological antomy
    Studies the structural changes caused by disease.
  13. Radiographic Anatomy
    Studies internal structures as visualized by X-ray images or specialized scanning procedures.
  14. Molecular Bioloby
    The study of the structure of biological molecules.
  15. Palpation
    Feeling organs with your hands.
  16. Ausculation
    Listening to organs with a stethoscope.
  17. Renal Physiology
    kidney functions and urine production.
  18. Neurophysiology
    Explains the workings of the nervous system.
  19. Cardiovascular Physiology
    examines the operation of the heart and blood vessels.
  20. Principal of complimentarity of structure and function
    • What a structure can do depends on its specific form.
    • Function always reflects structure
  21. Level of Structural Organization
    • 1. Chemical
    • 2. Cellular
    • 3. Tissue
    • 4. Organ
    • 5. Organ System
    • 6. Organismal
  22. Chemical level-1st in the hierachy
    • The simplest level in structural hierachy.
    • 1. Atom, tiny building blocks of matter, combine to form molecules.
    • 2. Molecules associate in specific ways to form organelles, the basic component of the microscopic cells.
    • 3.Cells are the smallest units of living things.
  23. Cellular Level-2nd in hierachy
    Cells are the smallest units of living things.
  24. Tissue level-3rd in the hierachy
    Tissues are groups of similar cells that have a common function.
  25. 4 Types of Tissues
    • 1. Epithelium
    • 2. Muscle
    • 3. Connective
    • 4. Nervous
  26. Organ-4th in hierachy
    Discrete structure composed of at least two tissue types (usually 4 types) that performs a specific function for the body.
  27. Organ system-5th in hierachy
    Extremely complex functions become possible. Organs that wok togethe to accomplish a common purpose.

    Ex: Heart and blood vessels of the cardiovascular system circulate blood continuously to carry oxygen and nutrients to all body cells.
  28. Organ systems
    • Cardiovascular
    • Integumentary (Skin)
    • Skeletal
    • Muscular
    • Nervous
    • Endocrine
    • Lymphatic
    • Respiratory
    • Digestive
    • Urinary
    • Reproductive
  29. Organismal-6th in hierachy-Highest Level
    Represents the sum total of all structural lovels working together to keep up alive.
  30. Movement
    • Includes the activities promoted by the muscular system.
    • Also occurs when substances such as blood, foodstuffs, and urine are propelled through the internal organs of the cardiovascular, digestive, and urinary systems.
  31. Contractility
    Muscle cell's ability to move by shortening
  32. Skeletal System
    Provides the bony framework that the muscles pull on as they work.
  33. Responsiveness (irritablity)
    Ability to sense changes (which serve as stimuli) in the environment and then espond to them.
  34. Digestion
    Breaking down of ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood.
  35. Metabolism
    • Includes all chemical reactions that occur within body cells.
    • Regulated largely by hormones secreted by endocrine system glands.
  36. Catabolism
    Breaking down substances into simpler building blocks.
  37. Anabolism
    Synthesizing more complex cellular structures from simpler substances
  38. Cellular Respiration
    Uses nutrients and oxygen to produce ATP
  39. ATP
    Eneryg rich molecules that power cellular activity.
  40. Excretion
    Process of removing wastes from the body.