Chapters 1-8, 11&12

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Author:
tsbatiste
ID:
261401
Filename:
Chapters 1-8, 11&12
Updated:
2014-02-11 01:54:30
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VTHT Radiology
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Midterm 1 review
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  1. This is the energy carried by waves or a stream of particles
    radiation
  2. This is a method of transporting energy through space
    Electromagnetic radiation
  3. This is a form of electromagnetic radiation similar to visible light but with a shorter wavelength
    X-ray
  4. This refers to a number of x-rays traveling together through space at rapid speed
    X-ray beam
  5. List the physical properties of X-rays
    • 1. Variable wavelength dependent on radiation
    • 2. Travel in a straight line
    • 3. Penetrate materials that absorb/reflect visible light
    • 4. Cause some materials to fluoresce after exposure
    • 5. Cause biological changes in living tissues
    • 6. Produce an invisible image on photographic film
  6. Who discovered X-rays?
    Wilhelm Roentgen
  7. In what year were X-rays discovered?
    1895
  8. What city in Germany did Roentgen make the discovery of X-rays?
    Wurzburg
  9. In what year did Roentgen receive the Nobel Prize?
    1901
  10. What is the nickname for X-rays?
    Roentgen rays
  11. This is the positively charge electrode that acts as a target for the electrons from the cathode and produce heat and x-rays
    Anode
  12. This is the number of protons in an atom's nucleus
    atomic number
  13. This is the negatively charged electrode that provides a source of electrons
    cathode
  14. Name two terms that a bundle of radiant energy is called.
    • photon
    • quanta
  15. This refers to a visible photograph record on film produced by x-rays passing through an object
    Radiograph
  16. This is the process in which an electron is moved to a higher energy level within the atom
    Excitation
  17. This is the process in which an electron is removed from the atom leaving it positively charged
    Ionization
  18. Name rays from the shortest to the longest wavelengths
    • Cosmic
    • Gamma
    • X-ray
    • Ultraviolet
    • Visible
    • Infrared
    • TV and radar
    • Radio
  19. This is the phenomenon in which metal deposits on the inner wall of the envelope act as a secondary anode attracting electrons
    Arcing
  20. This is the part that acts as the kilovoltage selector by providing voltage to the high-step transformer.
    autotransformer
  21. This is the restricting device use to control the size of the primary x-ray beam
    collimator
  22. This releases electrons from their orbits as apart of a low-energy circuit in the cathode.
    filament
  23. This is the small area of the target where the electrons collide on the anode
    focal spot
  24. This is the recessed area where the filament lies directing the electrons toward the anode
    focusing cup
  25. This is the tube that contains the anode and the cathode
    Glass envelope
  26. This refers to the amount of electrical energy being applied to accelerate electrons from the cathode towards the anode
    Kilovoltage = 1000V
  27. This is the maximum energy of the x-rays which determines the quality of the x-ray beam and often referred to as the penetrating power.
    Kilovoltage peak (kVp)
  28. This is the amount of electrical energy being applied to the filament on the cathode and describes the number of xrays produced at exposure.
    milliamperage (mA)
  29. This is the metal the focusing cup is composed of with a high melting point and poor heat conductivity.
    Molybdenum
  30. This part reduces the x-ray machines input voltage from 110V to 10V to prevent burnout of the cathode filament
    Step-down transformer
  31. This part increases the incoming voltage of 110V to Kilovoltage in the anode
    Step-up transformer
  32. This is the metal that has a 3370 C melting point, high atomic number and most commonly used to make the filament of a cathode
    tungsten
  33. Name two types of anodes
    • Stationary
    • Rotating - 3350 rpm
  34. This metal has very good heat conduction and composes the anode
    Copper
  35. What is the size of the focal spot?
    1-2mm
  36. What is the target made out of and how much heat can it withstand?
    tungsten - 1000 C
  37. This is the variation of intensity of the primary x-ray beam
    heel effect
  38. What is the purpose of surrounding the glass envelope with oil?
    heat dissipation
  39. What is the primary limitation of a stationary anode?
    inability to withstand large amounts of heat
  40. What is the primary limitation of a rotating anode?
    bearing wear/damage
  41. What is the most common cause of x-ray tube failure?
    filament evaporation
  42. This preheats the filament to a low temperature when place in the "on" position.
    standby current

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