A: Finals: Ophthalmology
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Give 4 DDx for acute painful red eye
- Acute glaucoma
How is sleritis different from episcleritis
- Urgency - scleritis can cause visual loss
- Visual changes
- Pain more severe
- Non-blanching with phenylephrine
Give 4 causes of sudden visual loss
- Retinal artery occlusion (TA)
- Vitreous haemorrhage
- Optic neuritis/MS, diabetes
What is seen on opthalmic examination in ARMD?
- Dot haemorrhage
What is the pathophysiology of dry ARMD?
- Accumulation of hard exudate causes drusen
- Interruption of nutrient supply (mechanism unknown)
- Atrophy of RPE
- Loss of visual acuity
What is the difference between close and open angle glaucoma?
- Open angle caused by excess production/insufficient absorption of aqueous humour
- Closed angle caused by insufficient drainage due to closure of trabecular meshwork
Give 3 examinations are used in suspected glaucoma
- Tonometry: Increased IOP
- Slit lamp: Increased cup-to-disk ratio
- Perimetry: Visual field loss
Give 2 medications available for increased IOP
- Prostaglandin analogues
- Topical beta blockers (timolol)
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