RELS 100 EXAM #1.txt

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RELS 100 EXAM #1.txt
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  1. The community of monks and nuns; lowercased sangha refers to an individual monastic community.
    Sangha
  2. A geometrical design containing deities, circles, squares, symbols, and so on that represent totality, the self, or the universe.
    mandala
  3. The totality of Buddhist teaching
    Dharma
  4. A Tibetan Buddhist teacher; a title of honor often given to all Tibetan monks.
    lama
  5. Impermanence; constant change.
    anichacha
  6. Enlightment
    bodhi
  7. A shrine, usually in the shape of a dome, used to mark Buddhist relics or sacred sites.
    stupa
  8. Sorrow, misery.
    dukkha
  9. In Chan and Zen Buddhism, a question that cannot be answered logically; a technique used to test consciousness and bring awakening.
    koan
  10. The "diamond" scepter used in Tibetan and other types of Buddhist ritual, symbolizing compassion.
    vajra
  11. The three "bodies" of the Buddha - the Dharmakaya (cosmic Buddha nature), the Nirmanakaya (historical Buddhas), and the Sambhogakaya (celestial Buddhas).
    trikaya
  12. "Thatness," "thusness," "suchres"; the uniqueness of each changing moment of reality.
    tarthata.
  13. A symbolic hand gesture.
    mudra
  14. A state of deep awareness, the result of intensive meditation.
    samadhi.
  15. In Zen, the enlightened awareness
    satori
  16. The Mahayana notion of emptiness, meaning that the universe is empty of permanent reality.
    Shunyata
  17. A sacred text, especially one said to record the words of the Buddha.
    sutra.
  18. In Theravada, a person who has practiced monastic disciplines and reached nirvana, the ideal.
    arhat
  19. "Enlightenment being,"; in Mahayana, a person of deep compassion, especially one who does not enter nirvana but is constantly reborn to help others, a heavenly being of compassion.
    bodhisattva
  20. "Meditation" focusing of the mind; sometimes, stages of trance.
    dhyana
  21. A popular bodhisattva of compassion in Mahayana
    Guanyin
  22. Compassion, empathy
    karuna
  23. A Buddha (or bodhisattva) expected to appear on earth in the future.
    Maitreya
  24. "No self"; the doctrine that there is no soul or permanent essence in people and things.
    anatta
  25. The Buddha of the Western Paradise; a bliss-body Buddha in Mahayana
    Amitabha Buddha
  26. The three "baskets" or collections, of Buddhist texts.
    Tripitaka
  27. The release from suffering and rebirth that brings inner peace.
    nirvana
  28. Constant rebirth and the attendant suffering; the everyday world of change
    samsara
  29. "Not know" (Greek); a position asserting that the existence of God cannot be proven.
    agnosticism
  30. From the Latin anima, meaning "spirit," "soul," "life force"; a worldview common among oral religions (religions with no written scriptures) that sees all elements of nature as being filled with spirit or spirits.
    animism
  31. 'Not God" (Greek); a position asserting that there is no God or gods.
    atheism
  32. A technique, pioneered by Jacques Derrida, that sets aside ordinary categories of analysis, and makes use, instead, of unexpected perspectives on cultural elements; it can be used for finding underlying values in text, film, artwork, cultural practice, or religious phenomenon.
    deconstruction.
  33. The belief that reality is made of two different principles (spirit and matter); the belief of two gods (good and evil) in conflict.
    dualism.
  34. Existing and operating within nature.
    immanent
  35. The belief in one God.
    monotheism
  36. A position that is unconcerned with the supernatural, not asserting or denying the existence of any deity.
    nontheism
  37. The belief that everything in the universe is divine.
    pantheism
  38. The belief in many gods
    polytheism
  39. "Climbing beyond" (Latin); beyond time and space.
    transcendent
  40. A long-stemmed sacred pipe used primarily by many native peoples of North America; it is smokes as a token of peace.
    calumet
  41. A foretelling of the future or a look into the past; a discovery of the unknown by magical means.
    divination
  42. Organic, integrated; indicating a complete system, greater than the sum of its parts; here, refers to a culture whose various elements (art, music, social behavior) may all have religious meanings.
    holistic.
  43. The act of pouring a liquid on the ground as an offering to a god.
    libation.
  44. A human being who contacts and attempts to manipulate the power of spirits for the tribe or group
    shaman
  45. An attempt to influence the outcome of an event through an action that has an apparent similarity to the desired result - for example throwing water into the air to produce rain or burning an enemy's fingernail clippings to bring sickness to that enemy.
    sympathetic magic
  46. A strong social prohibition
    taboo
  47. An animal (or image of an animal) that is considered to be related by blood to a family or clan and is its guardian or symbol.
    totem
  48. Religions includes 8 importances.
    • 1. Belief system / worldview
    • 2. Community of Believers
    • 3. Core stories.
    • 4. Ritual (reinforcement)
    • 5. Ethics (how you act in the outside world)
    • 6. Characteristic Emotions.
    • 7. Material Expression¬†
    • 8. Sacredness (separation between secular and supernatural worlds)
  49. Religion is attempt to influence control nature.
    James Frazer
  50. Religion helps us feel secure in an unsafe universe.
    Sigmund Freud.
  51. Religion fills a need for individuation (personal fullfillment).
    Carl Jung
  52. Religion allows leaders to oppress the working class (the "opiate of the masses").
    Karl Marx.
  53. Indian prince who became Buddha : "Enlightened One"
    Siddhartha
  54. What was the prophecy at Sidddhartha's birth?
    He was destined to either conquer the world of be an enlightened being (the Buddha).
  55. When was Siddhartha born?
    500 years BCE.
  56. What happened to Siddhartha when he was 7 years old?
    the queen (his mother) died.
  57. What was Siddhartha's father's position.
    The king.
  58. What was Siddhartha's childhood like?
    Delicately brought up. Prince of a warrior clan, ate the finest food, wore costly garments, completey isolated and sheltered from reality of the modern world.
  59. Name the 4 counters of the Buddha?
    • 1. Old man
    • 2. Sick man
    • 3. Corpse
    • 4. Spiritual seeker.
  60. Being aware of the presence.
    mindfulness
  61. 3 Jewels of Buddhism.
    • 1. Buddha
    • 2. Dharma (teachings)
    • 3. Sangha (community)
  62. 4 Noble Truths
    • 1. Suffering. (dukkha)
    • 2. Why? why do we suffer? Comes from Desire
    • 3. Cessation of the suffering: the remainderless - to end suffering (Nirvana)
    • 4. The way of practice to end desire follow > Eight-Fold Path
  63. In many Native American religious traditions, there is little distinction between human and animal worlds. These native religions see everything in the universe as being alive, a concept known as?
    animism
  64. In native societies, everyday religious activity and practice are significant, because their primary purpose is often to place individuals, families, and groups in "right _______" with gods, ancestors, other human beings and nature.
    relationships
  65. Sacred space is the ________ through which the "other world" of gods and ancestors can contact us and we can contact them.
    doorway
  66. 3 Examples of sacred space
    • 1. Native American Sweatlodge
    • 2. Ireland's Drombeg Stone
    • 3. England Stonhenge.
  67. Special rituals marks a person's entry into adulthood. In Native American religions, a common ritual of early maturity is the ____________ quest.
    vision or dream
  68. 3 examples of coming-of-age ceremonies.
    • 1. Marriage - ritual that not only publicly affirms and stabilizes a union but also cements economic arrangements and through the ceremony ensures fertility.
    • 2. The Poro (secret initiation society) for boys.
    • 3. Apache, a four-day ceremony marking a girl's menarche.
  69. 3 Examples of Taboo.
    • 1. Among some Africans, commoners touching the food before the King. (Food)
    • 2. Blood - traditional Hawaian women of high rank gave birth in isolation at a special site.
    • 3. Death - proper rituals must be performed, accompanied by public mourning.
  70. 3 examples of divination
    • 1. Diviner - looks for causes of sickness, depression, death, and other difficulties.
    • 2. Healer - works with a person afflicted with physical or mental illness to find a cure.
    • 3. Rainmaker ends drought
    • -- Tea leaves
    • -- Bones (read patter to see future)
  71. 3 marks of reality
    • 1. Impermanence "change"
    • 2. No permanent self
    • 3. "Suffering" pain
  72. 3 branches of Buddha.
    • 1. Theravada "Elders" - traditional
    • 2. Mahayana "Big" - wide understanding, more exceptance. ** Pureland ** Zen "meditiation.
    • 3. Vajrayana "Diamond" - Tibetan

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