A&P Quiz 5

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A&P Quiz 5
2014-02-12 19:44:54

A&P Quiz 5
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  1. Internal Thyroarytenoid (Vocalis)
    • Shortens and tenses the vocal folds
    • Part of the Vocal fold that vibrates
    • Originates at the thyroid notch 
    • Inserts into vocal process of arytenoids
  2. External Thyroarytenoid (Thyromuscularis)
    • Doesn't vibrate
    • Originates just below thyroid notch 
    • Inserts into muscular process of arytenoids 
    • Adducts and shortens the vocal folds
  3. Glottis
    • Space between the vocal folds
    • When vocal folds close the glottal opening does as well
    • space changes bases on the size of the breath
  4. 5 Layers of the Vocal Folds
    • Epithelium 
    • Lamina Propria (Superficial, Intermediate, Deep)
    • Vocalis Muscle
    • *Intermediate and Deep makes
  5. Epithelium
    • Outer layer of vocal folds
    • Gives vocal folds glistening white appearance
  6. Lamina Propria
    • Composed of three layers, Superficial, Intermediate, and Deep
    • The Layers provide a loose connection between epithelium and vocalis muscle
    • Intermediate and Deep layers compose the vocal ligament
  7. Vocalis Muscle
    • Set Epithelium and Lamina Propria into motion 
    • Vibrates more or less independently of the vocalis muscle because they are only loosely attached
    • Vibrate like a wave (think shaking out a sheet)
  8. Supraglottal Cavity
    • Space above the glottis 
    • Also known as the laryngeal cavity 
    • Where air stream from the larynx enters the throat
  9. Cricothyroid Muscles
    • Originates at the front of the cricoid 
    • Inserts into the lower boarder of the thyroid
    • Pulls cricoid and thyroid together when contracted
    • Causes vocal fold to lengthen and tense; higher pitch
  10. Interarytenoid Muscles
    Oblique and Transverse Arytenoids
  11. Oblique Arytenoids
    • Criss-cross pair of muscles
    • originate at muscular process of one arytenoid Insert into the apex of opposite arytenoid
    • When contracted, pulls apexes together
  12. Transverse Arytenoids
    • One muscle 
    • Extends horizontally across the back of the arytenoids 
    • When contracted, pull arytenoids closer together
  13. Extrinsic Laryngeal Muscles
    • Aryepiglottic Muscles 
    • Thyroepiglottic Muscles
  14. Aryepiglottic Muscles
    • Originates at arytenoids 
    • Inserts into epiglottis 
    • Pulls epiglottis down when contracted (during swallowing)
  15. Thyroepiglottic Muscle
    • Originates at epiglottis 
    • Inserts into thyroid
    • Pulls epiglottis up when contracted
  16. False Vocal Folds
    • Above true vocal folds
    • Also known as Ventricular Vocal Folds
    • Thick Mucus membranes 
    • Very soft structures used for protection
  17. Laryngeal Ventricle
    • Space between the true and false Vocal folds 
    • Allows room for Vocal folds to vibrate
    • Has mucus glands that lubricate the vocal folds
  18. Biological Functions of the Larynx
    • Expelling foreign objects (Coughing, Clearing Throat, etc)
    • Trunk Stability
  19. Forced Inspiration
    Vocal folds open very wide
  20. Whisper Triangle (Glottal Chink)
    • Arytenoids don't come together in the back and leave an open triangular space 
    • Allows air to flow through without vibrating the vocal folds
    • Whispering uses more air and give less control
    • *Alcohol impairs ability to hold breath
  21. Speech Functions of the Larynx
    • Vocal Attack
    • Sustained Phonation
    • Termination of Phonation
  22. 3 Types of Vocal Attack
    • Simultaneous: vocal folds close at the same time air pressure is adequate to start phonation; most effiecient 
    • Breathy: airflow starts before vocal folds are closed and adequate air pressure is produced
    • Glottal: vocal folds close before air pressure is ready so extra pressure builds up underneath (coughing)
  23. Sustained Phonation
    Vocal folds held in a fixed position to sustain phonation
  24. Termination of Phonation
    Abduct the vocal folds
  25. Registers
    Differences in mode of vibration of the vocal folds
  26. Mode of Vibration
    Changes Vocal Folds undergo during one cycle of vibration
  27. 3 Common Registers
    • Modal Register (Chest Register): Used during daily conversation; most efficient register
    • Glottal Fry (Vocal Fry/Pulse Register): low frequency register; weak and low pitched voice; sick voice; vocal folds vibrate slower and differently
    • Falsetto: high register; Vocal fold longer, thinner, and more tense
  28. Pitch
    • Frequency of the vocal fold vibration
    • Varies among speakers
    • Psychological correlate of Fundamental Frequency
    • What we perceive
    • Based on opinion
  29. Optimal Pitch
    Most appropriate pitch for individual to use on a daily basis; most efficient for the vocal folds
  30. Frequency
    How often a cycle of vibration occurs
  31. Fundamental Frequency
    • Primary frequencey of the vocal folds 
    • Physical correlate of pitch
    • Can be measured 
    • Changes in FF changes perception of pitch
  32. Habitual Pitch
    Pitch that an individual uses everyday
  33. Pitch Range
    • Range of Fundamental Frequency for an individual 
    • Difference between the lowest and highest frequency 
    • Most people have a 2 octave range 
    • One octave is 2x the Hertz
    • Hertz: 1 cycle of sound waves per sec
  34. Intensity and Loudness
    • Loudness is the psychological correlate of intensity 
    • Intensity: the energy of the vibrations (can be measured)
    • To increase intensity, Increase subglottal pressure (close VF tightly)
    • The higher the air pressure, the greater the volume of air that escapes at the greater speed
  35. 3 Voice Qualities
    • Breathiness
    • Harshness 
    • Hoarseness
  36. Breathiness
    • Vocal folds closed just enough to set into vibration 
    • Only front of the vocal folds vibrate, back stays open
    • Size of the opening in the back determines how breathy the sound is
  37. Harshness
    Vocal folds vibrate with irregularity
  38. Hoarseness
    • Combination of breathiness and harshness 
    • Irregularity when vocal folds vibrate that cause air to leak through 
    • Typical of swollen/irritated vocal folds
  39. Laryngeal Stridor
    Harsh sounds produced during respiration
  40. Inhalatory Stridor
    When vocal folds abstract airway on inhalation
  41. Glottal Cycle
    • Single vibration of the vocal folds
    • Vocal folds vibrate several hundred times a second
    • Opening Phase: subglottal pressure overpowers vocal folds just enough to blow open
    • Closing Phase: subglottal pressure decreases and vocal folds regain power
    • Closed Phase: vocal folds close and subglottal pressure begins to rebuild
    • Wave for is  periodic (always goes the same way)
    • Period: time it takes to complete 1 glottal cycle
  42. Mode of Vibration
    Changes that the vocal folds undergo during 1 glottal cycle
  43. Ventricle Mode of Vibration
    • Vocal folds open and close from inferior to superior 
    • Vocal folds move in a wave like fashion 
    • *side view cut away
  44. Anterior Posterior Mode of Vibration
    • Vocal Folds open from back to front 
    • Vocal Folds close from front to back 
    • *Looking straight down
  45. Bernoulli Effect
    • Given a constant flowing volume, at a point of constriction pressure decreases and velocity increases
    • *example; river rapids, 6 lane highway moving to 2