Card Set Information
The systematic study of human behaviour in social context
1. The degree to which group members share beliefs and values
2. the intensity and frequency of their interactions
Ideas about what is right and wrong
A tentative explanation of some aspect of social life that states how and why certain facts are related
Occurs in settings that exhibit very high levels of social solidarity (Durkheim). Altruistic suicide results that norms very tightly governing behaviour
Results from the poor integration of people into society because of weak social ties to others (Durkheim)
Occurs in settings that exhibit low levels of social solidarity (Durkheim).
Anomic suicide results from vaguely defined norms governing behaviour
Relatively stable patterns of social relations
The quality of mind that enables one to see the connection between personal troubles and social structures
The patterns of relatively intimate social relations formed during face-to-face interaction
Overarching patterns of social relations that lie outside and above a persons circle of intimates and acquaintances.
E.i. Classes, bureaucracies, and power systems
The traditional system of economic and political inequality between women and men
Patterns of social relations that lie outside ad above the national level.
E.i. International organizations, patterns of worldwide communication and travel.
"most important event in world history"
rapid economic transformation
from agriculture to technology
Theory that human behaviour is governed by relatively stable social structures, or social relations.
Focuses on large macro level structures, such as the relations among classes.
Show how structure maintain or undermine social stability
The struggle between classes to resist and overcome the opposition of other classes
Awareness of belonging to the social class of which one is a member
16th and 17th century protestant belief that religious doubts can be reduced and a state of grace assured, if people work diligently and live ascetically
Focus on interpersonal communication in micro level social settings, distinguishing it from both conflict and functionalism theories.
Emphasizes that social life is possible only because people attach meanings to things
Stresses that people help create their social circumstances and do not merely react to them
Patriarchy is as important as class inequality in determining a persons opportunities in life
the process of systematically observing reality to assess the validity of a theory
Carefully controlled artificial situation
Something that can hold different values
Assigning individuals to groups by chance process
The presumed effect in a cause and effect relationship
the group that is exposed to the independent variable
group that is not exposed to ind variable
the presumed cause in a cause-and-effect relationship
The degree to which a measurement procedure yields consistent results
The degree to which a measure actually measures what it is intended to measure
Sample in which the units have a known and non-zero chance of being selected
A list of all the people in the population of interest
relationship between two variables if the value of one variable changes with value of another
A type of field research that involves classifying and counting the behaviour of interest according to a predetermined scheme
Observed people may conceal certain things or act artificially to impress the researcher
researcher that engages in the context and observes at the same time
Analysis of existing documents and official statistics
a non reactive research method that involves the analysis of diaries, newspapers, published historical works, and statistics produced by government agencies.
The technology-driven shift from manufacturing to service industries and the consequences of that shift for virtually all human activities
The process by which formerly separate economies, nation-states, and cultures are becoming tied together and people are becoming increasingly aware of their growing interdependence
The sum of practices, languages, symbols, beliefs, values, ideologies, and material objects that people create to deal with real-life problems
Culture consumed mainly by upper classes
Culture consumed by all classes
Number of people who interact, usually in a defined territory, and share a culture
The human capacity to create general ideas or ways of thinking that are not linked to particular instances
Anything that carries a particular meaning
ei. components of language, mathematical notations and signs
Allows us to classify experience and generalize from it
Human capacity to create a complex social life by sharing resources and working together
Generally accepted ways of doing things
The human capacity to make and use tools. it improves our ability to take what we want from nature.
The tools and techniques that enable people to accomplish tasks
Symbols, norms, and other non-tangible elements of culture
The least important norms-norms the evoke the least severe punishment
Core norms that most people believe are essential for the survival of their group or society
Strongest norms. When violated causes revulsion in the community and severe punishment
Holds that we experience certain things in our environment and form concepts about those things. Then develop language to express, finally, the language influences how we see the world.
tendency to judge other cultures exclusively by the standards of your own
Visible and intended effects of social structures
The invisible and unintended effects of social structures
Policy that reflects Canada's ethnic and racial diversity in the past and enhances diversity today
Belief that all cultures have equal values
Process by which socially excluded groups have struggled to win equal rights under the law in practice
Rites of passage
Cultural ceremonies that mark the transition from one stage of life to another(marriage) or from life to death(funeral)
Culture characterize by eclectic mix of cultural elements from different times and places, the erosion of authority, and the decline of consensus around core values
Application of the most efficient means to achieve given goals and the unintended, negative consequences of doing so
Tendency to define ourselves in terms of the goods and services we purchase
Set of distinctive values, norms, and practices within a larger culture
Subversive subcultures that oppose dominant values and seek to replace them