Psy 215 quiz 1

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rmwartenberg
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261462
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Psy 215 quiz 1
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2014-02-11 17:11:13
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Developmental Psych
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Chapters 1,2,3,4,5,7,9,11,13,15,17
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  1. Piagets 4 stages of Cognitive development
    • Sensorimotor
    • preoperational
    • concrete
    • formal operational
  2. 6 sub stages of sensorimotor stage
    • 0-1 month- Reflexive being
    • 1-4 month -primary circular reactions emerge
    • 4-8 month -secondary circular reaction emerge
    • 8-12 month -cordination of secondary schemes
    • 12-18 month- tertiary actions
    • 18-24 month -Mental representation
  3. What are the major perspectives in lifespan development?
    • -Psychodynamic
    • -Behavioral
    • -Cognitive
    • -Humanistic
    • -contextual(social)
    • -Biological
  4. Psychodynamic
    • Major perspective
    • -Behavior throughout life is motivated by inner unconscious forces.
  5. Behavioral
    • Major perspective
    • -Development can be understood through studying observable behavior.
  6. Cognitive
    • Major perspective
    • -Emphasis on how changes or growth in the ways people know, understand, and think about the world.
  7. Humanistic
    • Major perspective
    • -behavior is chosen through free will and motivated by our natural capacity to strive to reach our full potential.
  8. Contextual(social)
    • Major perspective
    • -Development should be viewed in terms of the interrelationship of a persons physical cognitive, personality, and social worlds.
  9. Biological
    • Major perspective
    • -Behavior is the result of genetic inheritance from our ancestors; traits and behavior that are adaptive for promoting the survival of our species have been inherited through natural selection.
  10. Specific characteristics of Piagets stages of cognitive development?
    • Sensorimotor -Defered Imitation
    • Preperational- Egocentrism 
    • concrete-Logical thought
    • Formal operational-Abstract though
  11. What is defered Imitation?
    Piaget argued that only 24 month year old babies were able to perform this be imitating their parents. Many parents believed this to not be true. Meltzoff is a piagetian- he tested defered imitation in 12 month y/o and all the way down to new borns at 40 mins old- they were able to perform defered imitation. but it wasn't actually a cognitive development.
  12. Self other distinction
    Meltzoff went to humanistic psychology and used this principle to prove that piaget was still correct in defered imitation. because at that age they're reflexive beings and there is a difference between the theory of the mind and self other distinction.
  13. Theory of Mind
    the ability to observe an action then form a mental representation of that action and use the representation later. In the argument of self other distinction.
  14. Major Questions in lifespan development
    • Nature vs Nurture
    • mind and body
    • plasticity vs rigidity
    • active vs passive
    • wholistic vs discrete
    • universal and idiographic
    • nature of being human
    • continuous vs discontinuous
  15. Nature vs Nurture
    Nature is the biological side, This includes your genome. inherited form your parents abilities, capacities and traits.

    Nurture is the environment in which you are developing in. social factors and economical.
  16. Continuous vs discontinuous
    Continuous- involves gradual development achievements build off one another.

    Discontinuous-development that occurs in distinct steps and stages-each stage about behavior is assumed to be qualitatively different from behavior at earlier stages.
  17. Critical Period
    Specific time in development where a particular even has it's greatest consequences.
  18. Active vs passive
    the choices you make in life lead to or away from change, are you in control of your behavior? or how much is influenced by hormones or your environment.
  19. Wholistic vs discrete
    can the influences of behavior be discrete or do you have to understand teh whole of the human.
  20. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
    very heuristic the most influential psychologist for his time. Psychoanalytical theory suggests unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior. Ones personality has three aspects.
  21. Freud(ID)
    • the raw, unorganized, inborn part of personality present at birth that represents primitive drives related to hunger, sex, aggression, and irrational impulses.
    • -Operates according to the pleasure principle, in which the goal is to maximize satisfaction and reduce tension.
  22. Freud (ego)
    • the part of personality that is rational and reasonable.
    • -Operates on the reality principle, in which instinctual energy is restrained in order to maintain the safety of the individual and help integrate the person into society.
  23. Freud (SuperEgo)
    • the aspect of personality that represents a person’s conscience, incorporating distinctions between right and wrong.
    • -Learned from parents, teachers, and other significant figures
  24. Freud (Psychosexual development)
    A series of stages a child passes through in which pleasure, or gratification is focused on a particular biological function or body part.
  25. Psychosexual development-Oral stage
    12-18 months
  26. Psychosexual development-Anal stage
    12-18monts to 3 years
  27. Psychosexual development- phallic stage
    3-6 years
  28. Psychosexual development-Latency stage
    5-6 years to adolescence
  29. Psychosexual development Genital stage
    adolescence to adulthood.
  30. The mollyneux problem
    From philosophy- if someone is blind from birth and given two object to handle a sphere and a pyramid, once they're done the objects are placed on a table and the subject is give back his/her vision will they be able to tell which is the pyramid or the sphere?

    synesthesia- one sensory system activates another-the answer was determined to be yes based on a scientific study of newborns. (pacifier with nodules and another that is smooth. removed without them seeing them they were able to determined which one they were sucking on in the pictures by how long they observed the picture.
  31. science of scientific writing
    Keep subjects and verbs together.
  32. difference between longitudinal and cross sectional data?
    • Longitudinal is continuous over a period of time.
    • Cross sectional is data from two different groups.
  33. Is the differentiation of cells nature or nurture driven?
    It is Nurture driven such as the example with teratogens.
  34. What is an example of a test for functional aging?
    Having a geriatric patient lay down and see if they can get up without help.
  35. What is the definition of differentiation?
    The process of being different
  36. Language development differences in nature vs nurture
    • Nature cognitive we all have an innate ability to speak and will happen w/o others this is also considered a rigid perspective.
    • Nurture we develop our language through others and our environment. This is plasticity as well.
  37. Theory's of aging
    • cross linkage theory-with increasing age we lose elasticity in our skin and body due to cross links.
    • Genetic programming theory- programming in our DNA for a set time period to die.
    • Free radicals and telomeres
    • calorie restriction theory-which deaccelerates ageing be preventing free radicals from food.
  38. Language development
    Is mainly plastic then becomes rigid later in life. example is learning a new language it becomes much harder as an adult.
  39. Shae's theory of cognitive development
    • Acquisitive stage
    • achieving stage
    • responsible stage
    • executive stage
    • reintegrative stage
  40. Acquisitive stage
    encompasses all of childhood and adolescence (acquire knowledge)
  41. Achieving stage
    is the point reached by young adults an which intelligence is applied to specific situation involving the attainment of long term goals regarding careers, family, and societal contributions.
  42. Responsible stage
    • is the stage wherein the major concerns of
    • middle-aged adults relate to their personal situations, including protecting
    • and nourishing their spouses, families, and careers.
  43. Executive stage
    is the period in middle adulthood when people take a broader perspective than earlier, addressing more global concerns.
  44. Reintegrative stage
    • is the period of late adulthood during which
    • the focus is on tasks that have personal meaning.
  45. Zone of proximal development (ZPD)
    the level at which a child can almost—but not fully—perform a task independently, but can complete the task with the assistance of someone more competent.

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