What are the major perspectives in lifespan development?
-Behavior throughout life is motivated by inner unconscious forces.
-Development can be understood through studying observable behavior.
-Emphasis on how changes or growth in the ways people know, understand, and think about the world.
-behavior is chosen through free will and motivated by our natural capacity to strive to reach our full potential.
-Development should be viewed in terms of the interrelationship of a persons physical cognitive, personality, and social worlds.
-Behavior is the result of genetic inheritance from our ancestors; traits and behavior that are adaptive for promoting the survival of our species have been inherited through natural selection.
Specific characteristics of Piagets stages of cognitive development?
Sensorimotor -Defered Imitation
Formal operational-Abstract though
What is defered Imitation?
Piaget argued that only 24 month year old babies were able to perform this be imitating their parents. Many parents believed this to not be true. Meltzoff is a piagetian- he tested defered imitation in 12 month y/o and all the way down to new borns at 40 mins old- they were able to perform defered imitation. but it wasn't actually a cognitive development.
Self other distinction
Meltzoff went to humanistic psychology and used this principle to prove that piaget was still correct in defered imitation. because at that age they're reflexive beings and there is a difference between the theory of the mind and self other distinction.
Theory of Mind
the ability to observe an action then form a mental representation of that action and use the representation later. In the argument of self other distinction.
Major Questions in lifespan development
Nature vs Nurture
mind and body
plasticity vs rigidity
active vs passive
wholistic vs discrete
universal and idiographic
nature of being human
continuous vs discontinuous
Nature vs Nurture
Nature is the biological side, This includes your genome. inherited form your parents abilities, capacities and traits.
Nurture is the environment in which you are developing in. social factors and economical.
Continuous vs discontinuous
Continuous- involves gradual development achievements build off one another.
Discontinuous-development that occurs in distinct steps and stages-each stage about behavior is assumed to be qualitatively different from behavior at earlier stages.
Specific time in development where a particular even has it's greatest consequences.
Active vs passive
the choices you make in life lead to or away from change, are you in control of your behavior? or how much is influenced by hormones or your environment.
Wholistic vs discrete
can the influences of behavior be discrete or do you have to understand teh whole of the human.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
very heuristic the most influential psychologist for his time. Psychoanalytical theory suggests unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior. Ones personality has three aspects.
the raw, unorganized, inborn part of personality present at birth that represents primitive drives related to hunger, sex, aggression, and irrational impulses.
-Operates according to the pleasure principle, in which the goal is to maximize satisfaction and reduce tension.
the part of personality that is rational and reasonable.
-Operates on the reality principle, in which instinctual energy is restrained in order to maintain the safety of the individual and help integrate the person into society.
the aspect of personality that represents a person’s conscience, incorporating distinctions between right and wrong.
-Learned from parents, teachers, and other significant figures
Freud (Psychosexual development)
A series of stages a child passes through in which pleasure, or gratification is focused on a particular biological function or body part.
Psychosexual development-Oral stage
Psychosexual development-Anal stage
12-18monts to 3 years
Psychosexual development- phallic stage
Psychosexual development-Latency stage
5-6 years to adolescence
Psychosexual development Genital stage
adolescence to adulthood.
The mollyneux problem
From philosophy- if someone is blind from birth and given two object to handle a sphere and a pyramid, once they're done the objects are placed on a table and the subject is give back his/her vision will they be able to tell which is the pyramid or the sphere?
synesthesia- one sensory system activates another-the answer was determined to be yes based on a scientific study of newborns. (pacifier with nodules and another that is smooth. removed without them seeing them they were able to determined which one they were sucking on in the pictures by how long they observed the picture.
science of scientific writing
Keep subjects and verbs together.
difference between longitudinal and cross sectional data?
Longitudinal is continuous over a period of time.
Cross sectional is data from two different groups.
Is the differentiation of cells nature or nurture driven?
It is Nurture driven such as the example with teratogens.
What is an example of a test for functional aging?
Having a geriatric patient lay down and see if they can get up without help.
What is the definition of differentiation?
The process of being different
Language development differences in nature vs nurture
Nature cognitive we all have an innate ability to speak and will happen w/o others this is also considered a rigid perspective.
Nurture we develop our language through others and our environment. This is plasticity as well.
Theory's of aging
cross linkage theory-with increasing age we lose elasticity in our skin and body due to cross links.
Genetic programming theory- programming in our DNA for a set time period to die.
Free radicals and telomeres
calorie restriction theory-which deaccelerates ageing be preventing free radicals from food.
Is mainly plastic then becomes rigid later in life. example is learning a new language it becomes much harder as an adult.
Shae's theory of cognitive development
encompasses all of childhood and adolescence (acquire knowledge)
is the point reached by young adults an which intelligence is applied to specific situation involving the attainment of long term goals regarding careers, family, and societal contributions.
is the stage wherein the major concerns of
middle-aged adults relate to their personal situations, including protecting
and nourishing their spouses, families, and careers.
is the period in middle adulthood when people take a broader perspective than earlier, addressing more global concerns.
is the period of late adulthood during which
the focus is on tasks that have personal meaning.
Zone of proximal development (ZPD)
the level at which a child can almost—but not fully—perform a task independently, but can complete the task with the assistance of someone more competent.