Chapter 6

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Chapter 6
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2014-02-20 17:49:34
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Exploring Medical Language 8th edition Lafleur
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Urinary System
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  1. Define Kidneys
    • two bean-shaped organs located on each side of the vertebral column on the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity behind the parietal peritoneum.
    • Their function is to remove waste products from the blood and to aid in maintaining water and electrolyte balances.
  2. Define nephron
    • urine-producing microscopic structure
    • Approximately 1 million nephrons are located in each kidney
  3. Define glomerulus

    plural: glomeruli
    • cluster of capillaries at the entrance of the nephron
    • The process of filtering the blood, thereby forming urine, begins here
  4. Define renal pelvis
    funnel-shaped reservoir that collects the urine and passes it to the ureter
  5. Define hilum
    indentation on the medial side of the kidney where the ureter leaves the kidney
  6. Define ureters
    • two slender tubes, approximately 10-13 inches (26-33cm) long
    • they receive the urine from the  kidneys and carry it to the posterior portion of the bladder
  7. Define urinary bladder
    • muscular, hollow organ that temporarily holds the urine
    • As it fills, the thick, muscular wall becomes thinner, and the organ increases in size
  8. Define urethra
    • lowest part of the urinary tract, through which the urine passes from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
    • This narrow tube varies in length by sex
    • It is approximately 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) long in the female
    • It is approximately 8 inches (20 cm) long in the male
    • It is also a part of the male reproductive system.  It carries seminal fluid (semen) at the time of ejaculation
  9. Define urinary meatus
    opening through which the urine passes to the outside
  10. cyst/o
    vesic/o
    combining form 2

    bladder, sac

    Note: these refer to the urinary bladder unless otherwise identified in this chapter
  11. glomerul/o
    combining form

    glomerulus
  12. meat/o
    combining form

    meatus (opening)
  13. nephr/o
    ren/o
    combining form  2

    kidney
  14. pyel/o
    combining form

    renal pelvis
  15. ureter/o
    combining form

    ureter

    There are two ureters in a body
  16. urethr/o
    combining form

    urethra

    There is only one urethra in a body
  17. albumin/o
    combining form

    albumin

    MW:   any of numerous simple heat-coagulable water-soluble proteins that occur in blood plasma or serum, muscle, the whites of eggs, milk, and other animal substances and in many plant tissues and fluids
  18. azot/o
    combining form

    • urea
    • nitrogen
  19. blast/o
    combining form

    • developing cell
    • germ cell
  20. glyc/o
    glycos/o
    combining form  2

    sugar
  21. hydr/o

    Note: spelled with a 'y' not 'i', do not confuse with hidr/o
    combining form

    water
  22. lith/o
    combining form

    • stone
    • calculus (pl: calculi)
  23. noct/i

    Note: the combining vowel is 'i', not 'o'
    combining form

    night
  24. olig/o
    combining form

    • scanty
    • few
  25. son/o
    combining form

    sound
  26. tom/o
    combining form

    • cut
    • section
  27. urin/o
    ur/o
    combining form

    • urine
    • urinary tract
  28. -gram
    Suffix

    • record
    • radiographic image
  29. -iases
    -esis
    Suffix

    condition
  30. -lysis
    Suffix

    • loosening
    • dissolution
    • separating
  31. -megaly
    Suffix

    enlargement
  32. -ptosis
    Suffix

    • drooping
    • sagging
    • prolapse
  33. -rrhea
    Suffix

    • flow
    • discharge
  34. -rrhagia
    Suffix

    rapid flow of blood
  35. -rrhaphy
    Suffix

    • suturing
    • repairing
  36. -tripsy
    Suffix

    surgical crushing
  37. -trophy
    Suffix

    • nourishment
    • development
  38. -uria
    Suffix

    • urine
    • urination
  39. azotemia

    (az-o-TE-mee-a)
    • condition of urea in the blood
    • a toxic condition resulting from disease of the kidney in which waste products are in the blood that are normally excreted by the kidney
    • also called uremia
  40. uremia
    • condition of urea in the blood
    • a toxic condition resulting from disease of the kidney in which waste products are in the blood that are normally excreted by the kidney
    • also called azotemia
  41. cystitis
    inflammation of the bladder
  42. cystocele
    protrusion (hernia) of the bladder
  43. cystolith
    stone in the bladder
  44. glomerulonephritis

    (glo-mer-u-loh-ne-FRIE-tis
    inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney
  45. hydronephrosis

    *check spelling
    • abnormal condition of water in the kidney
    • distention of the renal pelvis with urine because of an obstruction
  46. nephritis
    inflammation of a kidney
  47. nephroblastoma
    • kidney tumor containing developing cells
    • malignant tumor
    • also called Wilms' tumor
  48. Wilms' tumor
    • kidney tumor containing developing cells
    • malignant tumor
    • also called nephroblastoma
  49. nephrohypertrophy

    Note: the prefix hyper appears in the middle of this term
    • excessive development of the kidney
    • increase in size
  50. nephrolithiases
    condition of stone(s) in the kidney
  51. nephroma
    tumor of the kidney
  52. nephromegaly
    enlargement of a kidney
  53. nephroptosis
    drooping kidney
  54. pyelitis
    inflammation of the renal pelvis
  55. pyelonephritis

    (pie-e-loa-ne-FRI-tis)
    inflammation of the renal pelvis and the kidney
  56. ureteritis
    inflammation of a ureter
  57. ureterocele
    protusion of a ureter (distally into the bladder)
  58. ureterolithiasis
    condition of stones in the ureters
  59. ureterostenosis
    narrowing of the ureter
  60. urethrocystitis
    inflammation of the urethra and the bladder
  61. epispadias
    congenital defect in which the urinary meatus is located on the upper surface of the penis
  62. hypospadias
    • congenital defect in which the urinary meatus is located on the underside of the penis
    • a similar defect can occur in females
  63. polycystic kidney disease
    PKD
    condition in which the kidney contains many cysts and is enlarged
  64. renal calculus
    plural: calculi
    stone in the kidney
  65. renal failure
    loss of kidney function resulting in its inability to remove waste products from the body and maintain electrolyte balance
  66. renal hypertension
    elevated blood pressure resulting from kidney disease
  67. urinary retention
    abnormal accumulation of urine in the bladder because of an inability to urinate
  68. urinary suppression
    sudden stoppage of urine formation
  69. urinary tract infection
    UTI
    infection of one or more organs of the urinary tract
  70. cystectomy
    excision of the bladder
  71. cystolithotomy
    incision of the bladder to remove a stone
  72. cystorrhaphy
    suturing the bladder
  73. cystostomy
    creating an artificial opening into the bladder
  74. cystotomy
    vesicotomy
    incision of the bladder
  75. lithotripsy
    surgical crushing of a stone
  76. meatotomy
    incision of the meatus (to enlarge it)
  77. nephrectomy
    excision of a kidney
  78. nephrolithotomy
    incision of the kidney to remove a stone
  79. nephrolithotripsy
    surgical crushing of a stone in the kidney
  80. nephrolysis
    separating the kidney (from other body structures)
  81. nephropexy
    surgical fixation of the kidney
  82. nephrostomy
    creation of an artificial opening into the kidney
  83. pyelolithotomy
    incision of the renal pelvis to remove a stone
  84. pyeloplasty
    surgical repair of the renal pelvis
  85. ureterectomy
    ecision of a ureter
  86. ureterostomy
    creation of an artificial opening into the ureter
  87. urethroplasty
    surgical repair of the urethra
  88. vesicourethral suspension
    • suspension pertaining to the bladder and urethra
    • **This Marshall-Marchetti Krantz technique with a midurethral sling is a suspension surgery performed on patients with stress incontinence
  89. extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
    ESWL

    (extra-kor-POR-ee-al)

    also called shock wave lithotripsy (SWL)
    • noninvasive treatment for removal of kidney or uretheral stones
    • by using ultrasound and flouroscopic imging, the stone is positioned at a focal point, repeated firing of shock waves renders the stone into fragments that pass from the body in the urine
  90. fulguration
    • destruction of living tissue with n electric spark
    • a method commonly used to destroy bladder growths
  91. renal transplant
    surgical implantation of a donor kidney to replace a nonfuncting kidney
  92. cystogram
    radiographic image of the ladder
  93. cystography
    radiographic imaging of the bladder

    *the actual exam
  94. intravenous urogram
    IVU

    also called intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
    radiographic image of the urinary tract (with contrast medium injected intravenously)
  95. nephrogram
    radiographic image of the kidney
  96. nephrography

    also called renogram
    radiographic imaging of the kidney

    *the actual exam
  97. nephrosonography
    • process of recording the kidney using a sound
    • (an ultrasound test)
  98. nephrotomogram
    sectional radiographic image of the kidney
  99. renogram
    renal scan
    nephrogram
    • (graphic) record of the kidney
    • a nuclear medicine test produced by radioactivity after injecting a radiopharmaceutical, or radioactive material into the blood
  100. retrograde
    • moving, occurring, or performed in a backward direction
    • move in a direction that is opposite from normal
  101. retrograde urogram
    • radiographic image of the urinary tract
    • contrast medium is instilled through urethral catheters by a cystoscope
  102. voiding cystourethrography
    VCUG
    • radiographic imaging of the bladder and urethra
    • radiopaque dye is instilled in the bladder
    • radiographic images called voiding cystourethrograms are taken of the bladder and during urination of the dye
  103. cytoscope
    instrument used for visual examination of the bladder
  104. cystoscopy
    visual examination of the bladder
  105. nephroscopy
    visual examination of the kidney
  106. ureteroscopy
    visual examination of the ureter
  107. urethroscope
    instrument used for visual examination of the urethra
  108. KUB
    (kidney, ureter, and bladder)

    also called flat plate of the abdomen

    Note: this is pronounced K-U-B and not cub
    • a simple radiographic image of the abdomen
    • it is often used to view the kidneys, ureters, and bladder to determine size, shape, and loction
    • also used to identify calculi in the kidney, ureters or bladder
    • or to diagnose intestinal obstruction
  109. blood urea nitrogen
    BUN
    • a blood test that measures the amount of urea in the blood
    • used to determine kidney function
    • an increased BUN indicates renal dysfunction
  110. creatinine
    • a blood test that measures the amount of creatinine in the blood
    • an elevated amount may indicate impaired kidney function
  111. specific gravity
    SG
    a test performed on a urine specimen to measure the concentrating or diluting ability of the kidneys
  112. urinalysis
    UA
    multiple routine tests performed on a urine specimen
  113. albuminuria
    • albumin in the urine
    • albumin is an important protein in the blood, but when found in the urine, it indicates a kidney problem
  114. anuria
    • absence of urine
    • failure of the kidney to produce urine
  115. diuresis
    • condition of urine passing thru
    • increased amount of urine
  116. dysuria
    difficult or painful urination
  117. glycosuria

    *pay attention to the correct spelling
    sugar (glucose) in the urine
  118. hematuria
    blood in the urine
  119. meatal
    pertaining to the meatus
  120. nephrologist
    a physician who studies and treats diseases of the kidney
  121. nephrology
    • the study of the kidney
    • a branch of medicine dealing with diseases of the kidney
  122. nocturia
    night urination
  123. oliguria
    scanty urine (amount)
  124. polyuria
    much (excessive) urine
  125. pyuria
    pus in the urine
  126. urinary
    pertaining to urine
  127. urologist
    a physician who studies and treats diseases of the urinary tract
  128. urology
    • study of the urinary tract
    • a branch of medicine dealing with diseases of the male and female urinary systems and the male reproductive system
  129. catheter
    (cath)
    flexible, tubelike device, such as a urinary catheter, for withdrawing or instilling fluids
  130. distended
    • stretched out
    • a bladder is distended when filled with urine
  131. enuresis
    involuntary urination
  132. hemodialysis
    HD
    procedure for removing impurities from the blood because of an inability of the kidneys to do so
  133. incontinence
    inability to control bladder and/or bowels
  134. micturate
    to urinate or void
  135. peritoneal dialysis
    • procedure for removing toxic wastes when the kidney is unable to do so
    • the peritoneal cavity is used as the receptacle for the fluid used in the dialysis
  136. stricture
    abnormal narrowing, such as an urethral stricture
  137. urinal
    receptacle for urine
  138. urinary catheterization
    passage of a catheter into the urinary bladder to withdraw urine
  139. urodynamics
    pertaining to the force and flow of urine within the urinary tract
  140. void
    to empty or evacuate waste material, especially urine

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