Signs and Symptoms
- Muscarinic signs
- (SLUDGE) salivation, lacrimation, urination, diaphoresis, gastrointestinal upset, emesis and progressing to bronchospasm, bronchorrhea, blurred vision, bradycardia or tachycardia, hypotension, confusion, and shock.
- Nicotinic effects
- Skeletal muscle initially exhibits fasciculation (involuntary irregular, violent muscle contractions) followed by the inability to repolarize cell membranes resulting in weakness and paralysis. Severe reactions can lead to ventilatory failure and death (cholinergic crisis).