Oncology study guide 1.txt

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Oncology study guide 1.txt
2014-02-11 20:32:54
Oncology study guide

Oncology study guide 1
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  1. Characteristics of benign cells
    continuous or inappropriate cell growth, show specific morphology, small nucleus, perform specific differentiated functions, adhere tightly together, nonmigratory, euploid, don’t invade
  2. Characteristics of normal cells
    LASSSA-limited cell division, apoptosis, small nucleus, specific morphology, specific differentiated functions, adhere tightly together; NECG-non migratory, euploid, contact inhibited, grow orderly
  3. Examples of primary screening
    teaching to avoid known carcinogens, removal of moles
  4. Examples of secondary screening
    halts the cancer process; mammograms, colonoscopy, pap; goal to reduce the number of cancer deaths
  5. What do malignant cells do?
    Hi mitotic rate, rapid growth, disregard for normal growth, almost never encapsulated, invade surrounding tissue, metastasize, anaplastic, morphological characteristics, poorly differentiated, abnormal # of chromosomes, altered cell membrane
  6. What do suppressor cells do?
    Oncogenes that suppress growth; when suppressor genes become altered/mutated, cancer cells are allowed to reproduce
  7. Precancer preventative diet
    low fat, high fiber, no booze, no smoked/charred foods and nitrates, eat more fruits and veggies; vitamin A, Vitamin C
  8. Three processes of carcinogenesis
    1.initiation-permanently, directly and irreversible change the molecular structure of the DNA 2. Promotion-enhances the cellular changes done in initiation 3. Progression-morphological cellular changes and malignant behavior
  9. PT education of CT scan-CT guided biopsy
    detects differences in tissue densities in body and used with needle biopsies to direct needle to tumor site
  10. TNM
    T=size, N=nodes, M=mets
  11. Grade 1
    well differentiated (appear normal, growing slowly, not aggressive)
  12. Grade 2
    moderately differentiated (semi-normal, growing moderately fast)
  13. Grade 3
    poorly differentiated (abnormal, growing quickly, aggressive)
  14. ANC count is
  15. Teletherapy
    external beam, distant treatment; pt is NOT radioactive
  16. Brachytherapy
    internal, short or close tx; implanted by needles, seeds, beads or catheters; placed on bedrest, lomotil to prevent bowel movements; unsealed are eliminated in waste products that are radioactive
  17. Apoptosis
    programmed cell death
  18. Definition of curative surgery
    remove entire tumor (local-small; wide local-tumor plus tissue; wide excision-tumor, tissue, adjacent structures and usual lymph; extended radical-tumor, lymphatics, adjacent organs and tissues)
  19. Definition of reconstructive surgery
    restore function, skin closure, cosmetic, maintenance
  20. Hormonal drug tamoxifen
    reduces incidence of breast cancer by 49% in postmenopausal women identified as being high risk
  21. Skin care of radiation
    no lotions, ointments, no direct skin exposure to sun during tx and for at least 1 year after completion
  22. Chemo meds
    given on regular basis and timed to maximize cancer cell kill; usually q 3-4 weeks for about 6-12 times
  23. Side effects of chemo
    toxicity, GI upset, N/V, corticosteroids, amtiemetics, sedatives, histamines; small frequent meals, relaxation, comfort foods, soft toothbrush, avoid flossing, rinse with saline or water, avoid mouthwashes with alcohol
  24. What to do for extravasation?
    Apply heat or ice depending on the drug, dr may aspirate drug from; make sure you’re in the vein; tissues, ointments such as dexamethasone can be effective
  25. What to do if pt is vomiting medicine?
  26. Vaginal bleeding, leg pain, flank pain
    ovarian cancer