List 1 (set1)

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crazyannie
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261534
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List 1 (set1)
Updated:
2014-02-11 23:40:15
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Art history
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Western Art II
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    • Period: 15th Century
    • Location: Burgundy and Flanders
    • Artist: Claus SLUTER
    • Title: "Well of Moses"
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    Style:limestone with paint
  1. (closed)


    (open)
    • Period: 15th Century
    • Location: Burgundy and Flanders
    • Artist: Jan VAN EYCK
    • Title: "Ghent Altarpiece"
    • Subject/Context:
    • In the closed position, the two "statues" of St. John are examples of the grisaille (made to look like grey stone) technique, used in a lot of altarpieces.  The couple who donated money to the chapel for which this was made are shown kneeling and praying before the statues.  Above them, we see an annunciation scene, with an open window which reveals a view of Ghent.  Prophets and sybils who foretold the event are above the annunciation.
    • When open, we have a richly detailed altarpiece in which the top half consists of religious icons and the bottom half creates an image of the Flemish countryside that is lushly green and filled with flowering plant, most of which have been identified. A lot of people in the altarpiece hold books, and in most cases, the words in the books can be read.  It seems that the books were used to communicate a theological discourse requested by the donors and the priest.
    • Style: oil on wood
    • Period: 15th Century
    • Location: Burgundy and Flanders
    • Artist: Jan VAN EYCK
    • Title: "Man in Red Turban"
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    • Style: oil on wood
    • Period: 15th Century
    • Location: Burgundy and Flanders
    • Artist: Jan VAN EYCK
    • Title: "Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride
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    • In fact, the focus of interpretation has been the question of whether the painting documents a marriage, a betrothal, or is better understood as a double portrait, falling in the class of court portraits.  Van Eyck was a noted portrait painter for the royal court, a factor which gives credibility to the idea of seeing this as a double portrait.  That does not eliminate the symbolic meaning of the clogs, the dog (faith and fidelity), the mirror (the eye of God), and other religious symbols in the painting (St. Margaret, on the corner of the chair; the scenes from the passions of Christ painted on the frame of the mirror), but it corresponds more closely to the fact that the Arnolfinis were not married in 1434 (they did not marry until 1447) and to the dominant tendency in northern paintings to find sacred meaning in "ordinary" objects
    • The document interpretation has always rested on the belief that van Eyck can be seen in the mirror.  Certainly, two other figures can be made out, but it is unclear as to who they are.  Van Eyck did sign the painting right above the mirror, at the very least leaving no doubt in anyone's mind that he was the artist who made it.  Whether he intended his presence in the mirror as a witness to a legal ceremony or not, it was not unusual for aristocrats to use portrait paintings as a metaphorical document of their status. 
    • In this painting, every object which can be identified (basically everything in the painting) is either there as a symbol of fertility, of betrothal, of faithfulness, or as a symbol of the wealth of Arnolfini.  For viewers today, besides being a brilliant work of art, the painting is a wonderful source of information about the lifestyle of the merchant class.
    • Style: oil on wood
    • Period: 15th Century
    • Location: Burgundy and Flanders
    • Artist: Rogier VAN DER WEYDEN
    • Title: "Portrait of a Lady"
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    • Style: oil on panel
    • Period: 15th Century
    • Location: Burgundy and Flanders
    • Artist: Rogier VAN DER WEYDEN
    • Title: "Deposition"
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    • In this example, notice how Rogier van der Weyden uses a composition based on rhyming bodies.  He does this throughout his work, whether altarpiece or portrait.  Here, in the Deposition, you can follow the rhymes from one body to another.
    • Although van der Weyden excels at creating compositions based on rhyming patterns, he is hardly the only artist to do this. We can see it in the Ghent altarpiece as well, especially in the bottom panel in the open position. 
    • Compositions based on repeating curves, lines and forms are probably inherent to an art which is more interested in line and pattern (as is the case with most northern art) than the creation of deep space (the concern of Italian artists).
    • The Deposition exemplifies what some people think of as a tableau vivant or "living picture" (people deliberately posing as a painting).  The figures look believably three-dimensional, almost as if they had been carved in relief inside a box.  The crowded space which does not allow for any movement enhances the emotional quality of the scene.
    • Style: oil on wood
    • Period: 15th Century
    • Location: Burgundy and Flanders
    • Artist: Rogier VAN DER WEYDEN
    • Title: "St. Luke Drawing the Virgin"
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    • Style: oil and tempera on wood

    • Period: 15th Century
    • Location: Burgundy and Flanders
    • Artist: Robert CAMPIN
    • Title: "Merode Altarpiece"
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    • Although humans and saints and angels occupied the previous altarpiece, and everything looked naturalistic, it still does not appear to be a real place in which the real humans might have lived. In this altarpiece, that separation is challenged. Although the patrons are kneeling outside the kitchen where the annunciation takes place, one can easily imagine that the room is a real room in their home. 
    • This is the earliest Annunciation panel set in a fully detailed domestic interior, an element of reality which creates an interpretive problem: every element now has a second meaning.  The goal apears to be one of making sacred symbols look like part of the natural world.
    • This union of symbolism and realism is characteristic of many 15th-century northern European paintings. It is a union which makes the secular world sacred and may help to explain why donors wanted their portraits included in the altarpieces (and other religious paintings) they commissioned.  Here, the artist has also made a consistent attempt to render a complete spatial reality, although it is not the same space from one panel to another. Despite the fact that it is not accurate perspective, every detail is made concrete.
    • This particular altarpiece is probably much smaller than you imagine. It was not made for a chapel or church - it was made for the patrons to keep in their own home.  The male patron's family name was Ingelbrecht, which means "angel bringer" and the female patron's family name was Schrinmechers, which means "shrine maker." Robert Campin seems to have chose this scene, the Annunciation and Joseph making a mouse trap, as a deliberate reflection of the meanings of the patrons' names.
    • Style: oil on wood
    • Period: 15th Century
    • Location: Burgundy and Flanders
    • Artist: Petrus CHRISTUS
    • Title: "A Goldsmith in His Shop"
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    • Style: oil on wood
  2. (January)


    (October)
    • Period: 15th Century
    • Location: France
    • Artist: LIMBOURG BROS.
    • Title: "Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry - The Very Rich Hours of the Duke of Berry"
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    • Style: ink on vellum (lamb skin)
    • Period: 15th Century
    • Location: Holy Roman Empire
    • Artist: Michel WOLGEMUT
    • Title: Tarvisium
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    • Style: woodcut
    • Period: 15th Century
    • Location: Holy Roman Empire
    • Artist: Martin SCHONGAUER
    • Title: "St. Anthony Tormented"
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    • Style: engraving
  3. International Style
    sinuous (curvy) line, rich color, and decorative surface detail
  4. Triptych
    Pictures/carvings on three panels side-by-side
  5. Polyptych
    Pictures/carvings on four or more panels side-by-side
  6. Guild
    A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who control the practice of their craft in a particular town. (painters, goldsmith, etc)
  7. Donor
    Person/group who paid for the painting
  8. Book of Hours
    Book of prayers
  9. Allegory
    a story, poem, or picture that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a moral or political one
  10. Portrait
    a painting, photograph, sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant
  11. Engraving
    cut or carve (a text or design) on the surface of a hard object
  12. Humanism
  13. chiaroscuro
    the interplay of light and shadow on or as if on a surface
  14. Perspective
    an approximate representation, on a flat surface (such as paper), of an image as it is seen by the eye.
  15. Atmospheric perspective
    a technique in which an illusion of depth is created by painting more distant objects with less clarity, and with a lighter tone
  16. Painterly technique
    depiction of shapes by means of solid masses of colour, rather than by lines
  17. Foreshortening
    portray or show (an object or view) as closer than it is or as having less depth or distance, as an effect of perspective or the angle of vision.
    • Period: 15th Century
    • Location: Italy
    • Artist: Filippo BRUNELLESCHI
    • Title: "Sacrifice of Isaac"
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    • Style: gilded bronze relief
    • Period: 15th Century
    • Location: Italy
    • Artist: Lorenzo GHIBERTI
    • Title: "Sacrifice of Isaac"
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    • Style: gilded bronze relief
    • Period: 15th Century
    • Location: Italy
    • Artist: Lorenzo GHIBERTI
    • Title: "Gates of Paradise"
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    • Style: gilded bronze relief
    • Period: 15th Century
    • Location: Italy
    • Artist: Lorenzo GHIBERTI
    • Title: "Isaac and His Sons"
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    • Style: gilded bronze relief
    • Period: 15th Century
    • Location: Italy
    • Artist: Nanni di BANCO
    • Title: "Four Crowned Saints"
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    • Style: marble

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