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What are environmental-lifestyle factors that contribute to cancer
Environmental-lifestyle factors include cigarette smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, poor diet, lack of exercise, excessive sunlight exposure, and sexual behavior that increases exposure to certain viruses. Additional factors include exposure to radiation, hormones, medical drugs, viruses, bacteria, pesticides, and other environmental chemicals present in air, water, food, soil, and the workplace.
obesity and cancer
A recent hypothesis is obesity may be associated with the incidence of cancers of the breast, endometrium, colon, liver, kidney, and esophagus.
what are the biologic mechanisms of the association of obesity with cancer?
include insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, increased IGFs, increased steroid hormones, and increased tissue-derived hormones, cytokines, and/or inflammatory mediators.
Alcohol consumption and cancer
- Chronic alcohol consumption is a strong risk factor for cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, esophagus, and liver
- Alcohol consumption is less strongly but consistently related to breast cancer and colorectal cancer. Also, it is known to increase cell growth of human breast cancer cells in vitro.
Food and cancer?
- Some foods increase the risk of cancer, whereas other foods decrease the risk.
- Foods that reduce cancer: fruits veggies,fiber, foods contain vitamins A,C,D, and E....
- Foods that are bad: fat alcohol, blackened foods, friend food, high calcium levels....
Physical activity and cancer
- Physical activity reduces the risk for breast and colon cancers and may reduce the risk for other cancers.
- may prevent type 2 diabetes, which has been associated with cancer of the pancreas and colon.
What are the biologic mechanisms for the protective effects of physical activity?
decreasing insulin and IGF levels, decreasing obesity, increasing free radical scavenger systems, altering inflammatory mediators, decreasing levels of circulating sex hormones and metabolic hormones, improving immune function, enhancing cytochrome P-450 activity (thus modifying carcinogen activation), and increasing gut motility.