Oncology study guide 2.txt

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Oncology study guide 2.txt
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2014-02-11 22:52:15
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Oncology study guide 2
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  1. Antineoplastic
    stop cancer cell
  2. Hematopoietic therapy
    supportive therapy (colony stimulating factors); stimulate BM WBC; epo stimulates RBC; interleukin stimulates production of platelets; 2 benefits-infection,anemia, allows for higher doses of meds
  3. Myelosuppression
    reduced WBCs, RBCs and platelets; monitor for infection and bleeding
  4. Administering chemo
    observe for extravasation; handling chemo agents can cause secondary cancer, chromosome abnormalities in addition to N/V, dizziness, alopecia and nasal mucosal ulcerations
  5. Interventions for mucositis
    frequent mouth assessment and oral hygiene; teeth cleaning, mouth rinsing; soft bristle toothbrush or mouth sponges; avoid floss and water pressure gum cleaners; rinse with plain water or saline every hour while awake; avoid alcohol mouthwashes; monitor fluid, electrolytes, nutrition
  6. Allogenic BM transplantation
    from donor other than ct; advantage-cells should not be immunologically tolerant of a ct’s malignancy and shold cause graft v disease in cancer cells
  7. ABCD moles
    Asymmetry, Border irregularity, Color, Diameter > 6 mm
  8. BMT conditioning
    conditioning-regimen takes 5-10 days; goal to kill marrow to make room for donor marrow; give higher doses of chemo/radiation to get rid of cancer cells; individually tailored
  9. Priority nursing diagnosis of engraphment of BMT
    risk for infection
  10. Post BM transplant nadir
    the lowest blood counts after chemo; will give HGF to decrease length
  11. Biological response modifiers
    interferon, interleukins-modify biologic response to tumor cells
  12. Interventions for stomatitis
    stuff for mucositis, no hot or spicy foods or difficult to chew
  13. Alopecia
    depends on dose and duration of therapy; 2-3 weeks after therapy begins; regrows within 8 weeks
  14. Cachexia
    weakness and wasting of the body due to chronic illness; loss of wt, adipose tissue, supplements between meals; no fluids with meals
  15. GVH disease-rejection
    mostly in allogenic transplants; donated marrow recognizes recipients cells as foreign and starts immunologic attack against them; tissues most susceptible are skin, GI and liver; 25-50% will get this and 15% will die
  16. Thrombocytopenia
    platelet count<100000; 20000-50000-increased risk of bleeding; <20000-risk for spontaneous bleeding and we give fluids, platelets and or blood; monitor labs, move joints gently, meds to stimulate platelet production
  17. DIC (which two lab decreases do you see)
    decreased platelets, clotting factors, fibrinogen, H&H; increased PT, PTT, fibrin split products
  18. SIADH
    usually seen in squamous cell lung cancer; hyponatremia due to excess water; fluid restriction, minimize client activity; give increased sodium
  19. Amount of radiation delivered to a tissue
    exposure
  20. Amount of radiation absorbed by the tissue
    radiation
  21. Two common side effects of teletherapy
    altered taste and fatigue
  22. Anemia
    decreased numbers of RBC and hemoglobin
  23. Priority for pt with thrombocytopenia
    safe hospital environment
  24. Photodynamic therapy
    selective destruction of cancer cells through a chemical reaction triggered by types of laser lights; sensitivity to light up to 12 weeks after
  25. Two BRMs
    interleukins (regulate inflammation and immune protection) and interferons (slow tumor cell division, inhibit expression of oncogenes)
  26. Tumor lysis-TX and how do you know it’s working
    hyperkalemia-give fluids (3000 ml) day before, day of and 3 days after to reduce potassium levels; some fluids should be alkaline to help prevent uric acid precipitation; can give allopurinol or IV containing glucose and insulin; administer phosphate binding gels such as aluminum hydroxide to treat hyperphosphatemia by promoting excretion in the feces
  27. Hypercalcemia-tx and how you know it’s working (medicine/IV drug)
    oral hydration; normal saline; ECG changes; can give calcitonin, oral glucocorticoids
  28. SVC-what treatment is and how do you know it’s effective
    hi dose radiation, anticoagulants, surgery to redirect blood flow
  29. For an endoscopic surgery, is it incisional or excisional
    excisional is surgical removal of a lesion; excisional used for tumors of lip, nose, ear or breast; incisional used for dx of large tumors that require surgery for removal

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