Patho Chapter 39

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  1. What are geriatric considerations of aging and changes in skin integrity?
    • Sin becomes thinner, dryer, and more wrinkled¬†
    • DNA repair of damaged skin decreases
    • epidermal cells contain less moisture and change shape
    • dermis thins, producing translucent paper thin skin that is more susceptible to tearing
    • loss of elastin=wrinkling¬†
    • los of flexibility of collagen fibers so cant stretch
  2. What are other skin changes with age?
    • Wound healing decreases bec decreased blood flow
    • fewer melanocytes:pigmentation becomes irregular and decreased protection from UV radiation
    • atrophy of glads causing dry skin
    • nails are more brittle
  3. What are pressure ulcers?
    ischemic ulcers resulting from unrelieved pressure, shearing forces, friction, and moisture.
  4. What is a decubitus ulcer?
    decubitus ulcer refers to ulcers or pressure sores that develop when an individual lies in the recumbent position for a long time.
  5. Where do pressure ulcers develop?
    over bony prominences like the sacrum, heels, ischia, and greater trochanters. Continuous pressure on tissue between the bony prominence and a resistant outside surface distorts capillaries and occludes the blood supply.
  6. What happens to the cells when pressure isn't unrelieved?
    the endothelial cells lining the capillaries become disrupted with platelet aggregation, forming microthrombi that block blood flow and cause anoxic necrosis of surrounding tissues
  7. What is stage 1 of pressure ulcers?
    Nonblanchable erythema of intact skin, usually over bony prominence
  8. What is stage 4 of pressure ulcers?
    Full-thickness tissue loss with exposure of muscle, bone, or supporting structures (tendons or joint capsules); can include undermining and tunneling
  9. What is a macule?
    Flat, circumscribed area that is a change in color of skin; less than 1 cm in diameter
  10. what are examples of a macule?
    Freckles, flat moles (nevi), petechiae, measles, scarlet fever
  11. What is a papule?
    Elevated, firm, circumscribed area less than 1 cm in diameter
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Patho Chapter 39
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