What are the 3 primary monosaccarides needed for healthy nutrtion?
Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
Which monosaccharides come together to form the main disaccharides of nutrtion?
Lactose= glucose & galactose.
Maltose= glucose & glucose.
Sucrose= glucose & fructose.
Be able to identify the parts of a grain and where the protein, fiber, carbs, etc. are.
Define Glycogen and why it is important.
In animal tissues. Is not a dietary source. formed by body and used in metabolism and energy balance. Sustains blood sugar levels between meals.
Plant structure. Undigested in GI and makes up the bulk of our stool which helps move food through the GI tract.
Grains, legumes, vegs/fruits. Complex sugars which take time to breakdown, providing longer energy time. Glucose is a main example of this.
Why is fiber good for us?
Helps to avoid GI disease, cardivascular disease, diabetes, and helps to stimulate GI smooth muscle contractions, moving the stool. Combines and binds with cholesterol to avoid absorption. Provides fermentation material for bacterial flora in the digestive tract.
How can fiber be bad and what bad side effects can it have?
If you consume to much it can be bad as it causes gas, bloating, constipation. It can also trap nutrients not allowing your body to absorb them.
Main places of carb digestion.
Mouth - mechanical breakdown aka chewing
Pancreatic Secretions - Pancreatic amylase
Intestinal Secretions - microvilli secretes Maltase, Lactase, and Sucrase. Absorbstion takes place here as well.
What are the main purposes of fat?
Storage of concentrated fuel/energy. Supplements carbs as prime energy source. Water insoluble, which is an important structural component to cell membranes.
Draw a triglyceride molecule.
How does a glycerol join fatty acids to become a triglyceride?
Dehydration Synthasis, byproduct: H2O.
Draw a phospholipid.
Why are phospholipids important?
One part hydrophilic, one part hydrophobic, allowing phospholipids to act as transport molecules in blood and as cell membranes.
Recognize palmitic acid.
Recognize trans oleic acid.
Recognize arachidonic acid.
Used to move fat through blood. Fat wrapped in water soluble proteins.
High Density Lipoprotein. If there is a higher protein to fat ratio than it is a HDL, good.
Low Density Lipoprotein. If there is a higher fat to protein ratio than it is a LDL, bad.
Draw two amino acids and a dipeptide bond between them.
Name the 3 categories of amino acids.
Define Indispensable/Essential Amino Acids
Indispensable/Essential Amino Acids are needed in the diet as the body doesn't produce them.
Define Dispensable/Non-essential Amino Acids
Dispensable/Non-essential Amino Acids are not needed in the diet as the body produces them.
Conditionally Indispensable/Essential Amino Acids
Conditionally Indispensable/Essential Amino Acids are needed in the diet based on certain conditions in the body. Ie. pregnancy, illness, etc.
Phenylketonuria which is a deficiency in the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase which means it can't turn phenylalanine into tyrosine. So the phen. accumulates and is toxic to the brain and can lead to mental disorder and/or death.
Define Positive Nitrogen balance.
When proteins are broken down into amino acids, nitrogen is released. A positive balance can result when the body is using most of the protein consummed as the body is growing. Ie. infancy, pregnancy, and after illness.
Define Negative Nitrogen Balance.
When the body is breaking done muscle and proteins faster than the diet can replace it. A negative balance can result during times of illness and/or malnutrition. Ie. Kwashiokor, muscle loss, organ failure.
Proteins provide what to the body and it's function.
Proteins become amino acids which are used to build tissue. Also used as energy, in water/pH balance, metabolism, transport, and body defense.
Define Complete Proteins
Foods that contain all 9 essential amino acids in sufficient quantity and ratio to meet bodily needs. Typically found in animal meat, eggs, milk, etc.
Are deficient in 1 or more of the 9 essential Amino Acids. Generally found in plants.
4 main vegetarian diets
Lacto-Ovo-Vegetarian: dairy, eggs. no meat/fish.
Lacto-Vegetarian: dairy products only. no eggs, meat, fish.
Ovo-Veg.: eggs. no dairy, meat, fish.
Vegans: No animal products! Must be careful to get all necessary protein needs.
2 problems from protein deficiency.
Body can't synthesize tissues, enzymes, antibodies, etc.
Leads to malnutrition, leads to increase likelihood of disease, edema, bloating, etc.
Problems from an excess of protein.
An increase in cardiovascular disease, kidney stress, etc.
2 energy needs of the body
Voluntary Work & Exercise: walking, driving, etc.
Involuntary Body Work: circulation, respiration, digestion, etc.
Define a calorie, how does it relate to a
- A calorie is equal to the amount of heat necessary to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree Celcius.
- A kilocalorie is nutrition is equal to 1000 calories.
Name the 3 energy yielding nutrients and how many kcals each produce.
What is Total Energy Expenditure (TEE)?
TEE is the total amount of energy put out by
What are the 3 things that make up TEE (total energy expenditure).
REE: resting energy expenditure
PA: physical activity
TE: Thermic Effect of food
4 functions of water in our bodies.
Act as a solvent
Helps with transport
Helps regulate tempature
Factors that influence our need for water in our
How is water taken into our bodies?
Intake is controlled by hormones and in extreme cases thrist. Water comes into the body as:
o Preformed water in liquids (milk, juice, water)
o Preformed water in foods we eat
o The product of cell oxidation
How does water leave the body?
Kidneys - majority of loss, urine
How much of our total body weight is water?
45 - 75% of TBW (total body weight)
How is the water in our bodies distributed, based on total body weight (TBW)?
40% TBW Intercellular Fluid: cytoplasym, other liquids inside of the cell
What are the two main solutes found in human fluids?
Electrolytes: ions (small inorganic substances, can carry charges in a solution)
Plasma Proteins: Albumins & Globulins. Larger than electrolytes, so they can't cross membranes and stay in the blood.
Why are the fluids solutes important?
Help to maintain osmotic pressure in the blood by facilitating osmosis, diffussion, filtration, etc.
Name the methods our bodies use to move water and solutes across membranes.
Passive transport where there is movement of a solvent across a semipermeable membrane from an area of less concentration to higher concentration, thus equalizing the concentrations on both sides of the membrane.