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What is health promotion?
Active involvement in behaviors/programs that advance well-being. Starts with healthy diet.Health professionals main branch of focus and responsibilities.
What is health and wellness?
Health - absence of disease. Wellness - full developmental potential within enviroment and personal goals
List three energy sources.
Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins.
Explain Carbs, what they are and how they are used in the body.
Starch, sugars. Primary preferred source of energy. Used as energy, and stored as glycogen.
Explain Fats. where are they found and how the body uses them.
found in plants and animals. primarily used as stored energy.
Explain Proteins. Where are they found and how the body uses them.
mainly found in animals, used as energy but mainly as amino acid source to allow tissue building.
Carbs - Amount of energy and daily recommended allowance.
4 kcals/gram, 45% - 65%
Fats - Amount of energy and daily recommended allowance
9 kcals/gram, 20% - 35%
Proteins - Amount of energy and daily recommended allowance
4kcals/gram, 10% - 35%
list the 3 functions of nutrients and explain each
- Energy - bodies use it to run.
- Tissue Building - Proteins turned into amino acids for building new tissue.
- Regulation and Control - vitamins & minerals, water and fiber. Oxygen, metabolism, enzymes, etc. are all needed to maintain homeostasis.
Recommended Daily Allowances - minimum daily nutrient intake necessary to protect from deficiency. applicable to 97.5% of healthy individuals.
Daily Reference Intakes - nutrient recommensations by US Standards. Many developed countries also have similar standards.
Why are carbs the primary source of energy throughout the world? Give some examples of carbs.
Widely available, easily grown, cheap to produce, easily stored, and don't spoil easily. Examples - Grains, milk, sugar, honey, corn syrup.
What are the 3 primary monosaccarides needed for healthy nutrtion?
Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
Which monosaccharides come together to form the main disaccharides of nutrtion?
- Lactose = glucose & galactose.
- Maltose = glucose & glucose.
- Sucrose = glucose & fructose.
Be able to identify the parts of a grain and where the protein, fiber, carbs, etc. are.
Define Glycogen and why it is important.
In animal tissues. Is not a dietary source. formed by body and used in metabolism and energy balance. Sustains blood sugar levels between meals.
Plant structure. Undigested in GI and makes up the bulk of our stool which helps move food through the GI tract.
Grains, legumes, vegs/fruits. Complex sugars which take time to breakdown, providing longer energy time. Glucose is a main example of this.
Why is fiber good for us?
Helps to avoid GI disease, cardivascular disease, diabetes, and helps to stimulate GI smooth muscle contractions, moving the stool. Combines and binds with cholesterol to avoid absorption. Provides fermentation material for bacterial flora in the digestive tract.
How can fiber be bad and what bad side effects can it have?
If you consume to much it can be bad as it causes gas, bloating, constipation. It can also trap nutrients not allowing your body to absorb them.
Main places of carb digestion.
- Mouth - mechanical breakdown aka chewing
- Pancreatic Secretions - Pancreatic amylase
- Intestinal Secretions - microvilli secretes Maltase, Lactase, and Sucrase. Absorbstion takes place here as well.
What are the main purposes of fat?
Storage of concentrated fuel/energy. Supplements carbs as prime energy source. Water insoluble, which is an important structural component to cell membranes.
Draw a triglyceride molecule.
How does a glycerol join fatty acids to become a triglyceride?
Dehydration Synthasis, byproduct: H2O.
Why are phospholipids important?
One part hydrophilic, one part hydrophobic, allowing phospholipids to act as transport molecules in blood and as cell membranes.
Recognize trans oleic acid.
Recognize arachidonic acid.
Used to move fat through blood. Fat wrapped in water soluble proteins.
High Density Lipoprotein. If there is a higher protein to fat ratio than it is a HDL, good.
Low Density Lipoprotein. If there is a higher fat to protein ratio than it is a LDL, bad.
Draw two amino acids and a dipeptide bond between them.
Name the 3 categories of amino acids.
- -Conditionally Indispensable/Essential
Define Indispensable/Essential Amino Acids
Indispensable/Essential Amino Acids are needed in the diet as the body doesn't produce them.
Define Dispensable/Non-essential Amino Acids
Dispensable/Non-essential Amino Acids are not needed in the diet as the body produces them.
Conditionally Indispensable/Essential Amino Acids
Conditionally Indispensable/Essential Amino Acids are needed in the diet based on certain conditions in the body. Ie. pregnancy, illness, etc.
Phenylketonuria which is a deficiency in the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase which means it can't turn phenylalanine into tyrosine. So the phen. accumulates and is toxic to the brain and can lead to mental disorder and/or death.
Define Positive Nitrogen balance.
When proteins are broken down into amino acids, nitrogen is released. A positive balance can result when the body is using most of the protein consummed as the body is growing. Ie. infancy, pregnancy, and after illness.
Define Negative Nitrogen Balance.
When the body is breaking done muscle and proteins faster than the diet can replace it. A negative balance can result during times of illness and/or malnutrition. Ie. Kwashiokor, muscle loss, organ failure.
Proteins provide what to the body and it's function.
Proteins become amino acids which are used to build tissue. Also used as energy, in water/pH balance, metabolism, transport, and body defense.
Define Complete Proteins
Foods that contain all 9 essential amino acids in sufficient quantity and ratio to meet bodily needs. Typically found in animal meat, eggs, milk, etc.
Are deficient in 1 or more of the 9 essential Amino Acids. Generally found in plants.
4 main vegetarian diets
- Lacto-Ovo-Vegetarian: dairy, eggs. no meat/fish.
- Lacto-Vegetarian: dairy products only. no eggs, meat, fish.
- Ovo-Veg.: eggs. no dairy, meat, fish.
- Vegans: No animal products! Must be careful to get all necessary protein needs.
2 problems from protein deficiency.
- Body can't synthesize tissues, enzymes, antibodies, etc.
- Leads to malnutrition, leads to increase likelihood of disease, edema, bloating, etc.
Problems from an excess of protein.
An increase in cardiovascular disease, kidney stress, etc.
2 energy needs of the body
- Voluntary Work & Exercise: walking, driving, etc.
- Involuntary Body Work: circulation, respiration, digestion, etc.
Define a calorie, how does it relate to a
- - A calorie is equal to the amount of heat necessary to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree Celcius.
- - A kilocalorie is nutrition is equal to 1000 calories.
Name the 3 energy yielding nutrients and how many kcals each produce.
- Carbohydrates: 4kcals/gram
- Proteins: 4kcals/gram
- Fats: 9kcals/gram
What is Total Energy Expenditure (TEE)?
- TEE is the total amount of energy put out by
- our bodies.
What are the 3 things that make up TEE (total energy expenditure).
- REE: resting energy expenditure
- PA: physical activity
- TE: Thermic Effect of food
4 functions of water in our bodies.
- Act as a solvent
- Helps with transport
- Helps regulate tempature
- Provides lubrication
Factors that influence our need for water in our
- Enviromental Factors
- Functional Lose
How is water taken into our bodies?
- Intake is controlled by hormones and in extreme cases thrist. Water comes into the body as:
- o Preformed water in liquids (milk, juice, water)
- o Preformed water in foods we eat
- o The product of cell oxidation
How does water leave the body?
- Kidneys - majority of loss, urine
How much of our total body weight is water?
45 - 75% of TBW (total body weight)
How is the water in our bodies distributed, based on total body weight (TBW)?
- 20% TBW Extracellular Fluid: 5% plasma & lymph/15%interstitial fluid (outside of cells)
- 40% TBW Intercellular Fluid: cytoplasym, other liquids inside of the cell
What are the two main solutes found in human fluids?
- Electrolytes: ions (small inorganic substances, can carry charges in a solution)
- Plasma Proteins: Albumins & Globulins. Larger than electrolytes, so they can't cross membranes and stay in the blood.
Why are the fluids solutes important?
Help to maintain osmotic pressure in the blood by facilitating osmosis, diffussion, filtration, etc.
Name the methods our bodies use to move water and solutes across membranes.
- Facilitated Diffusion
- Active Transport
Passive transport where there is movement of a solvent across a semipermeable membrane from an area of less concentration to higher concentration, thus equalizing the concentrations on both sides of the membrane.
Higher water/solvent concentration, lower solutes concentration
Higher solutes concentration, lower water/solvent concentration.
Passive transport where molecules move down their concentration gradient, from areas of higher to lower concentration, seeking balance.
Define Facilitated Diffusion.
Passive transport of substances across a biological membrane, from area of higher to lower concentration by means of a carrier molecule.
The movement of water and solutes across a semipermeable membrane due to hydrostatic pressure from the cardiovascular system.
Taking solution into the cell by forming vesicles.
How are the kidneys/renal system used to help balance fluid in the body?
- Helps to maintain blood volume and osmotic concentrations
- Kidneys filter and reabsorb water and ions
- Damaged kidneys can cause problems with water balance.
- ADH: Hormone involved in controlling kidneys. ADH conserves water by reabsorbing it.
- Aldosterone: Hormone involved in controlling kidneys. Helps maintain proper Na+ levels, which also helps to reabsorb the correct amount of water.
How is the GI/digestive tract used to help balance fluid in the body?
- GI secretions: mostly water-based.
- Saliva: water-based
- Pancreatic Juices: water-based
- Gastric Juices: water based
- Diarrhea & Vomitting: in severe cases can lead to balance disruption.
Memorize the Angiotensin Pathway.
Angiotensin Pathway written out.
- Decreased blood flow to kidneys ⇨
- Kidneys secrete Renininto blood ⇨
- Renin reacts with Angiotensinogen ⇨
- Angiotensin I a weak vasoconstritor ⇨
- (Angiotensin converting enzyme in lungs) ⇨
- Angiotensin II a stronger vasoconstritor ⇨
- Adrenal Cortex secrets Aldosterone into blood ⇨
- Turns on Na+/ K+ ATPase in kidneys ⇨
- (TWO PARTS)
- PART ONE:
- 3 Na+ reabsorbed from urine into blood ⇨
- Water follows by osmosis ⇨
- (2 results)
- Result 1:
- Increased blood volume ⇨
- Increased blood pressure ⇨
- Cycle may begin again if necessary.
- Result 2:
- Decreased urine volume
- PART TWO:2 K+ secreted from blood into urine ⇨
- (2 results)
- Result 1:
- More K+ in urine
- Result 2:
- Less K+ in blood