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What are some etiologies of constipation?
- Neurogenic disorders,
- functional or mechanical conditions,
- low-residue diet,
- excessive use of antacids,
- changes in bowel habits
What are some etiologies of osmotic diarrhea?
- caused by hypertonic gut due to:
- -lactase deficiency
- -inability to absorb certain carbs
What is osmotic diarrhea?
- There is a non-absorbable substance in the intestine that draws water into the lumen by osmosis
- causes large volume diarrhea
What is the most common cause of osmotic diarrhea?
- Lactase deficiency
- -nonabsorbed lactose remains in the intestines b/c it is not digested. It ferments and causes GAS
What is secretory diarrhea?
- Excessive mucosal secretion of chloride or bicarbonate rich fluid OR
- inhibition of Na+ absorption
- (excessive motility of the intestine to expel the offensive substance which decreases mucosal surface contact)
What are some etiologies of secretory diarrhea?
- Bacterial eterotoxins
When does massive diarrhea occur with a bacterial enterotoxin?
When the secretion of water in the the intestinal lumen EXCEEDS absorption
An upper GI bleed that gets vomited out is usually what color?
Why is vomit of a person with a GI bleed usually bright red?
Because it's an active bleed. It hasnt' hit the acid yet and hasn't been digested through the bowels.
What is Hematemesis?
What is hematochezia?
bleeding from the rectum (fresh bright red blood)
What is melena?
dark tarry stools (look like beets)
What is occult bleeding?
What color is a lower GI bleed?
usually dark red
Why is a lower GI bleed usually dark red?
because it has mixed with gastric acid
What is visceral abdominal pain?
stimulus from an abdominal organ
What is referred abdominal pain?
felt at a distance from an affected organ
Where does parietal abdominal pain arise from?
arises from the peritoneum
Upper GI bleeding is from where?
Esophagus, stomach, or duodenum
Lower GI bleeding is from where?
jejunum, ilieum, colon, or rectum
What causes melena?
digestion of blood in the GI tract
What is dysphagia?
What is achalasia?
- Larger toward bottom of esophagus
- esophagus loses ability to squeeze food down
- muscular valve b/w esophagus & stomach doesn't fully relax
- esophagus massively dilates
What is GERD?
The reflux of chyme from the stomach to the esophagus
If GERD causes inflammation of the ESOPHAGUS, what is it called?
What does a normal functioning lower esophageal sphincter maintain to prevent chyme reflux?
a zone of high pressure
Manifestations of GERD.
- regurgitation of chyme
- upper abdominal pain w/in 1 hr of eating &
- leads to BARRETT'S
Why is GERD dangerous?
Acid coming into the esophagus makes the body stary to lay down new cells to protect itself (inflammatory response). It's a risk for esphageal cancer