Gastrointestinal Disorders (Patho 3)

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  1. What are some etiologies of constipation?
    • Neurogenic disorders,
    • functional or mechanical conditions,
    • low-residue diet,
    • sedentary
    • lifestyle,
    • excessive use of antacids,
    • changes in bowel habits
  2. What are some etiologies of osmotic diarrhea?
    • caused by hypertonic gut due to:
    • -lactase deficiency
    • -inability to absorb certain carbs
  3. What is osmotic diarrhea?
    • There is a non-absorbable substance in the intestine that draws water into the lumen by osmosis
    • causes large volume diarrhea
  4. What is the most common cause of osmotic diarrhea?
    • Lactase deficiency
    •     -nonabsorbed lactose remains in the intestines b/c it is not digested. It ferments and causes GAS
  5. What is secretory diarrhea?
    • Excessive mucosal secretion of chloride or bicarbonate rich fluid OR
    • inhibition of Na+ absorption
    • (excessive motility of the intestine to expel the offensive substance which decreases mucosal surface contact)
  6. What are some etiologies of secretory diarrhea?
    • Bacterial eterotoxins
    •    -cholera
    •    -E.coli
  7. When does massive diarrhea occur with a bacterial enterotoxin?
    When the secretion of water in the the intestinal lumen EXCEEDS absorption
  8. An upper GI bleed that gets vomited out is usually what color?
    bright red
  9. Why is vomit of a person with a GI bleed usually bright red?
    Because it's an active bleed. It hasnt' hit the acid yet and hasn't been digested through the bowels.
  10. What is Hematemesis?
    Vomiting blood
  11. What is hematochezia?
    bleeding from the rectum (fresh bright red blood)
  12. What is melena?
    dark tarry stools (look like beets)
  13. What is occult bleeding?
    hidden bleeding
  14. What color is a lower GI bleed?
    usually dark red
  15. Why is a lower GI bleed usually dark red?
    because it has mixed with gastric acid
  16. What is visceral abdominal pain?
    stimulus from an abdominal organ
  17. What is referred abdominal pain?
    felt at a distance from an affected organ
  18. Where does parietal abdominal pain arise from?
    arises from the peritoneum
  19. Upper GI bleeding is from where?
    Esophagus, stomach, or duodenum
  20. Lower GI bleeding is from where?
    jejunum, ilieum, colon, or rectum
  21. What causes melena?
    digestion of blood in the GI tract
  22. What is dysphagia?
    difficulty swallowing
  23. What is achalasia?
    • Larger toward bottom of esophagus
    • esophagus loses ability to squeeze food down
    • muscular valve b/w esophagus & stomach doesn't fully relax
    • esophagus massively dilates
  24. What is GERD?
    The reflux of chyme from the stomach to the esophagus
  25. If GERD causes inflammation of the ESOPHAGUS, what is it called?
    reflux esophagitis
  26. What does a normal functioning lower esophageal sphincter maintain to prevent chyme reflux?
    a zone of high pressure
  27. Manifestations of GERD.
    • Heartburn
    • regurgitation of chyme
    • upper abdominal pain w/in 1 hr of eating & 
    • leads to BARRETT'S
  28. Why is GERD dangerous?
    Acid coming into the esophagus makes the body  stary to lay down new cells to protect itself (inflammatory response). It's a risk for esphageal cancer
Card Set:
Gastrointestinal Disorders (Patho 3)
2014-02-12 21:17:49

Gastro Patho
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