Clinical Laboratory (Chapter 19)

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Clinical Laboratory (Chapter 19)
2014-02-12 16:03:04
Hospital Corpsman

Hospital Corpsman NAVEDTRA 14295B
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  1. What is a SF-545?
    Laboratory Report Display
  2. When performing venipuncture, apply tourniquet around the arem approximately (__) to (__) inches above the intended venipuncture site.
    3 to 4
  3. Using a smooth continuous motion, introduce the needle, bevel side up, into the vein at about a (___) to (___) degree angle with the skin.
    15 to 30
  4. Do not leave the tourniquet on for more than 2 minutes.
    True or False
    • False
    • *1 minute
  5. Most laboratories are equipped with (_____) microscopes.
    Binocular (two-eyepiece)
  6. What is the structure that supports the magnification and focusing system?
    (Hint: Handled by which the microscope is carried)
  7. What is the platform on which a specimen is placed for examination?
  8. What holds the specimen in place and is the means by which the specimen may be moved about on the stage to view the sample?
    Mechanical (movable) Stage
  9. What is the structure on which the microscope rests?
  10. What does the Iris Diaphragm do?
    Controls the amount of light and angle of light rays
  11. What is the magnification of low-power lens?
  12. What is the magnification of a high-power lens?
  13. What is the magnification of Oil-immersion lens?
  14. A complete blood count routinely consists of what following test?
    • 1. Total red blood cell (RBC) count
    • 2. Hemoglobin Determination (Hgb)
    • 3. Hematocrit Calculation (Hct)
    • 4. Total white blood cell (WBC) count
    • 5. White Blood Cell Differential count
  15. The Complete blood count, is commonly referred to as a (______).
  16. What is the primary function of Hemoglobin?
    Primary function of hemoglobin is delivery and release of oxygen to the tissues
  17. What are the normal values for hemoglobin in woman and men?
    • Woman: 12 to 16
    • Men:      14 to 18
  18. What is a hematocrit?
    (Hint: Packed RBC volume)
    The ratio of the volume of RBCs to the volum of whole bood.
  19. What are the normal values for hematocrit determinations?
    • Woman: 37% to 47%
    • Men:      42% to 52%
  20. Normal WBC values in adults range from (___) to (__) cells per cubic milimeter.
    4,800 to 10,800
  21. What are leukocytosis?
    When the WBC rises above normal values
  22. What is leukopenia?
    An abnormally low white cell count
  23. What may leukopenia be cause by?
    • Severe or advanced bacterial infections
    • Protozoal infections
  24. What are the Five types of white cells that are normally found in the circulating blood?
    • 1. Neutrophils
    • 2. Eosinophils
    • 3. Basophils
    • 4. Lymphocytes
    • 5. Monocytes
  25. What accounts for the largest percentage of leukocytes?
  26. What is the the function of Eosinophil and what is the most common cause for it to increase?
    • Destory parasites and respond in immediate allergic reations.
    • Most common cause of increased eosinophils worldwide is parasitic, in particular helminthic, infections
  27. What function is associated with immune response and the body's defense against viral infection?
  28. What is the largest of the normal white blood cells, controls microbial and fungal infections, and removes damaged cells from the body?
  29. The four growth requirements for bacteria are what?
    • Temperature
    • Oxygen
    • Nutrition
    • Moisture
  30. Temperature requirements for bacteria are divided into how many catgories and what are they?
    • 1. Psychrophilic- "cold loving" reproduce best at low temperatures (4 C)
    • 2. Mesophilic - Bacteria that reproduce best at body temperature (35 C) and are the primary pathogens in man.
    • 3. Thermophilic- Bacteria that reproduce best at higer temperatures (42 C)
  31. What are Aerobes?
    organisms that reproduce in the presence of oxygen.
  32. What are Anaerobes?
    Organisms that do not reproduce in the presence of oxygen
  33. Exotoxins are highly poisonous and associated with septic shock.
    True or False
  34. What cells retain the primary crystal violet stain during decolorization and retain the violet stain?
    Gram positive cells
  35. Gram negative are deep pink.
    True or False
  36. Gram-positive is what color?
    Deep blue or blue-black
  37. What is an antigen?
    Is a substance that, when introduced into an individual's body is recognized as foreign by an individual's immune system
  38. What are Chlorophyll-free, heterotrophic of the same family of plants as algae and lichens?
  39. The First Morning Urine Specimen is the ideal screening specimen.
    True or False
  40. What are the steps for the Twenty-Four Hour Urine Specimen?
    • 1. Have patient empty bladder early in the morning and record time. (Discard this urine)
    • 2. Collect all urine voided during next 24 hours
    • 3. Instruct patient to empty bladder at 0800 the following day (end of 24-hr period). Add this urine to pooled specimen.
  41. The normal daily urine volume for adults ranges from 600 to (___) ml; Averaging about (____) ml.
    • 2,000 ml
    • 1,500 ml
  42. If your urine is Red or Red-brown, what does it mean?
    Caused by the presence of blood
  43. If your urine is Yello or brown, what does it tell you?
    Caused by the presence of bile
  44. When your urine is Olive green to brown-black, what is it caused by?
    Phenols, used as an antimicrobial agent
  45. If your urine is Dark orange, what is it caused by?
  46. The normal ranges for specific gravity are what?
    1.015 to 1.030
  47. When WBC count is above 50,000, what does it indicates?
    An acute infection