Chapter 6

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Chapter 6
2014-02-12 21:08:09

about learning
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  1. After repeatedly pairing a tone with meat powder, Pavlov found that a dog will salivate when the tone is presented. Salivation to the tone is a(n):
    conditioned response
  2. Sam’s wife always wears the same black nightgown whenever she is “in the mood” for sexual relations. Sam becomes sexually aroused as soon as he sees his wife in the nightgown. For Sam, the nightgown is a(n):
    conditioned stimulus.
  3. Watson and Rayner (1920) conditioned “Little Albert” to fear white rats by banging a hammer on a steel bar as the child played with a white rat. Later, it was discovered that Albert feared not only white rats butwhite stuffed toys and Santa’s beard as well. Albert’s fear of these other objects can be attributed to:
    stimulus generalization
  4. The phenomenon of higher-order conditioning shows that:
    an already established CS can be used in the place of a natural US.
  5. Which of the following statements is (are) true?
    The distinction between the two types of conditioning is not absolute.
  6. A pigeon in a Skinner box is pecking the disk at a high, steady rate.The graph portraying this pigeon’s responding will have:
    a steep, unchanging slope.
  7. A primary reinforcer has _________ reinforcing properties; a secondary reinforcer has _________ reinforcing properties.
    biological; acquired
  8. The steady, rapid responding of a person playing a slot machine is an example of the pattern of responding typically generated on a_________ schedule.
  9. Positive reinforcement _________ the rate of responding; negative reinforcement _________ the rate of responding.
    increases; increases
  10. Research on avoidance learning suggests that a fear response is acquired through _________ conditioning; the avoidance response is maintained as a result of _________ conditioning.
    classical; operant
  11. Nolan used to love tequila. However, a few weeks ago he drank way too much tequila and became very, very sick. His tendency to drink tequila has since declined dramatically. In operant terms, this sequence of events represents:
  12. According to Rescorla, the strength of a conditioned response depends on:
    the percentage of trials in which the CS and US are paired.
  13. The link between media violence and subsequent aggressive behavior may be explained by:
    observational learning.
  14. The second step in a self-modification program is to:
    gather baseline data.
  15. When advertisers pair their products with likable celebrities, pleasant music, and beautiful scenery, they are attempting to make their products:
    conditioned stimuli.
  16. This person described the process of observational learning and conducted influential research on the effects of TV violence.
    Albert Bandura
  17. This researcher showed that conditioned taste aversions are acquired quickly and easily because of mammals’ evolutionary history.
    John Garcia
  18. This person described the process of classical conditioning, including extinction and spontaneous recovery.
    Ivan Pavlov
  19. This contemporary researcher showed that the predictive value of a conditioned stimulus influences the strength of conditioning, thus highlighting the importance of cognitive processes in classical conditioning.
    Robert Rescorla
  20. This theorist used the concept of preparedness to explain why some phobias are acquired more readily than others, thus highlighting biological constraints on conditioning.
    Martin Seligman
  21. This influential American researcher described the process of operant conditioning,in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences.
    B. F. Skinner
  22. This theorist conducted pioneering research on latent learning and cognitive maps. He was an early advocate of the view that conditioning involves cognitive processes.
    Edward C.Tolman
  23. Known as the founder of behaviorism, this theorist conducted an influential early study of stimulus generalization with a young boy known as Little Albert.
    John B. Watson
  24. Whenever Midori takes her dog out for a walk, she wears the same old blue windbreaker. Eventually,she notices that her dog becomes excited whenever she puts on this windbreaker.
    Classical conditioning. Midori’s blue windbreaker is a CS eliciting excitement in her dog.
  25. The Creatures are a successful rock band with three hit albums to their credit. They begin their U.S.tour featuring many new, unreleased songs, all of which draw silence from their concert fans. The same fans cheer wildly when the Creatures play any of their old hits. Gradually, the band reduces the number of new songs it plays and starts playing more of the old standbys.
    Operant conditioning. Playing new songs leads to negative consequences (punishment), which weaken the tendency to play new songs. Playing old songs leads to positive reinforcement, which gradually strengthens the tendency to play old songs.
  26. When Cindy and Mel first fell in love, they listened constantly to the Creatures’ hit song “Transatlantic Obsession.” Although several years have passed, whenever they hear this song they experience a warm, romantic feeling.
    Classical conditioning. The song was paired with the passion of new love so that it became a CS eliciting emotional, romantic feelings.
  27. For nearly 20 years Ralph has worked as a machinist in the same factory. His new foreman is neversatisfi ed with Ralph’s work and criticizes him constantly. After a few weeks of heavy criticism, Ralph experiences anxiety whenever he arrives at work. He starts calling in sick more and more often to evade this anxiety.
    Both. Ralph’s workplace is paired with criticism so that his workplace becomes a CS eliciting anxiety. Calling in sick is operant behavior that is strengthened through negative reinforcement (because it reduces anxiety).
  28. Antonio gets a speeding ticket
  29. Diane’s supervisor compliments her on her hard work.
    Positive reinforcement.
  30. Leon goes to the health club for a rare workout and pushes himself so hard that his entire body aches and he throws up.
  31. Audrey lets her dog out so she won’t have to listen to its whimpering.
    Negative reinforcement (for Audrey); the dog is positively reinforced for its whining.
  32. Richard shoots up heroin to ward off tremors and chills associated with heroin withdrawal.
    Negative reinforcement.
  33. Sharma constantly complains about minor aches and pains to obtain sympathy from colleagues at work. Three co-workers who share an office with her decide to ignore her complaints instead of responding with sympathy.
    Extinction. When Sharma’s co-workers start to ignore her complaints, they are trying to extinguish the behavior (which had been positively reinforced when it won sympathy).
  34. Sarah is paid on a commission basis for selling computer systems. She gets a bonus for every third sale.
    FR. Each sale is a response and every third response earns reinforcement.
  35. Juan’s parents let him earn some pocket money by doing yard work approximately (on average) once a week.
    • VI. A varied amount of time elapses
    • before the response of doing yardwork can earn reinforcement.
  36. Martha is fly-fishing. Think of each time that she casts her line as the response that may be rewarded.
    • VR. Reinforcement occurs after a varied number of unreinforced casts (time is
    • irrelevant; the more casts Martha makes, the more reinforcers she will receive).
  37. Jamal, who is in the fourth grade, gets a gold star from his teacher for every book he reads.
    • CR. The designated response (reading
    • a book) is reinforced (with a gold star) every
    • time.
  38. Skip, a professional baseball player, signs an agreement that his salary increases will be renegotiated every third year.
    • FI. A fixed time interval (three
    • years) has to elapse before Skip can earn a salary increase (the reinforcer).
  39. Sam is 3 years old. One night his parents build a roaring fire in the family room fireplace.The fire spits out a large ember that hits Sam in the arm, giving him a nasty burn that hurts a great deal for several hours. A week later, when Sam’s parents light another fire in the fireplace, Sam becomes upset and fearful, crying and running from the room.
    CS: Fire in fireplace

    US: Pain from burn CR/UR: Fear
  40. Melanie is driving to work on a rainy highway when she notices that the brake lights of all the cars just ahead of her have come on.She hits her brakes but watches in horror asher car glides into a four-car pileup. She’s badly shaken up in the accident. A month later she’s driving in the rain again and notices that she tenses up every time she sees brake lights come on ahead of her.
    CS: Brake lights in rain

    US: Car accident CR/UR: Tensing up
  41. At the age of 24, Tyrone has recently developed an allergy to cats. When he’s in the same room with a cat for more than 30 minutes, he starts wheezing. After a few such allergic reactions, he starts wheezing as soon as he sees a cat in a room.
    CS: Sight of cat

    US: Cat dander CR/UR: Wheezing