Ch4T12,13,14

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Author:
aphy101
ID:
261642
Filename:
Ch4T12,13,14
Updated:
2014-02-14 17:41:00
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profmwinston
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Description:
Ch 4 Topics 12-14
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  1. A single stranded polymer of nucleotides. Includes phosphate group, nitrogen base, and sugar ribose; transfers the genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
    ribonucleic acid (RNA)
  2. What is the process of copying DNA information into RNA sequence?
    Transcription
  3. What is the process of mRNA translating from nucleic acid to amino acid?
    Translation
  4. The chemical base joined by hydrogen bonds connecting complementary strands of a DNA molecule or RNA molecule that has two strands
    base pairing
  5. Set of three contiguous nucleotides of a messenger RNA molecule that specifies a particular amino acid
    codons
  6. The first step in delivering information from nucleus to cytoplasm
    messenger RNA (mRNA)
  7. Type of RNA that forms part of the ribosome
    ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
  8. Aligns amino acids in a way that enables them to bond to each other
    transfer RNA (tRNA)
  9. In DNA its place is taken by thymine
    uracil
  10. What are the ways in which RNA and DNA differ?
    RNA is single stranded and the nucleotides have ribose not deoxyribose. Thymine is only in DNA. Uracil is only in RNA.
  11. Set of three similar things
    triplet
  12. Hydrogen bonded adenine and thymine (A-T) or guanine and cytosine (g-c) in DNA
    complementary base pairs
  13. Three contiguous nucleotides of a transfer RNA molecule that is complementary to a specific mRNA
    anticodon
  14. Correspondence between DNA and mRNA triplets and the amino acids that they specify; also used in protein synthesis
    genetic code
  15. Paired with thymine in double-stranded DNA
    adenine
  16. Paired with adenine in double-stranded DNA
    thymine
  17. Paired with guanine in double-stranded DNA
    cytosine
  18. Paired with cytosine in double stranded DNA
    guanine
  19. What is the difference between transcription and translation?
    Transcription is in the nucleus and translation is in the cytoplasm
  20. What are the steps of transcription
    DNA information is copied, transcribed into mRNA following complementary base pairing. mRNA leaves the nucleus and attaches to ribosome.
  21. What are the steps of translation
    tRNA anticodons recognize complimentary mRNA codons, bringing correct amino acids into position on growing polypeptide chain. Ribosome moves along mRNA, more amino acids are added. At end of mRNA, ribosome releases the new protein. tRNA molecules can pick up another molecule of the same amino acid and also be reused.
  22. A change in a gene
    mutation
  23. An agent that can cause mutations
    mutagens
  24. Replacement of a single base nucleotide with another nucleotide of genetic material DNA or RNA
    base pair substitution
  25. When an enzyme is altered by an inherited mutation, creating a block in that enzyme's pathway
    metabolic disease

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