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What did people think caused population fluctuations?
What is providential ecology?
nature constant and harmonious
Who were the pioneers of population dynamics?
- Plato- people regarding his ramblings about providential ecology as facts
- Aristotle- Plato's student, thought the boom and bust of locust populations related to the environment
What was important about Pliny?
- wrote a 31-volume work known as Natural History
- initiated the conception of the unity of nature and the interdependence of the sciences
Is measuring how well populations grow easy?
no it is complex because of the numerous interactions between individuals and the environment
What is emigration?
dispersal out of the population
What is immigration?
one-way movement onto another area or population
What is a group of organisms of the same species that occupies a given area over a specific time period?
What are the basic population parameters?
- birth rate
- death rate
- sex rate
- age structure
- survival by age class
- fecundity by age
- frequency of distribution of ages
- sex ration and numbers/density
What is natality?
- birth rate
- number of individuals produced per unit of time
- expressed as # of individuals produced per 100 females
What can cause mortality?
- disease, parasites
- old age
What is specific natality?
number of individuals produced per unit of time per breeding female
What variables influence natality?
- size of litter/clutch
- length of breeding season
- young produced per year
- breeding age
- sex rations and mating habits
- density and breeding
What is the potential number of animals that could be born?
What is the actual number of animals born?
fecundity (not a ratio)
What is mortality?
leaving the population by way of death