Dev Psy 217

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  1. norms
    average ages at which developmental milestones are reached
  2. maturation
    the gradual unfolding of a genetically programmed sequential pattern of change
  3. norm-referenced tests
    standardized tests that compare an individual child's score to the average score of others her age
  4. lifespan perspective
    the current view of developmentalists that important changes occur throughout the entire human lifespan and that these changes must be interpreted in terms of the culture and context in which they occur; this, interdisciplinary research is critical to understanding human development
  5. physical domain
    changes in the size, shape, and characteristics of the body
  6. cognitive domain
    changes in thinking, memory, problem solving, and other intellectual skills
  7. social domain
    change in variables that are associated with the relationship of an individual to others
  8. nature-nurture debate
    the debate about the relative contributions of biological processes and experiential factors to development
  9. quantitative change
    a change in amount
  10. qualitative change
    a change in kind or type
  11. stages
    qualitatively distinct periods of development
  12. normative age-graded changes
    changes that are common to every member of a species
  13. social clock
    a set of age norms defining a sequence of life experiences that is considered normal in a given culture and that all individuals in that culture are expected to follow
  14. ageism
    a prejudiced view of older adults that characterizes them in negative ways
  15. normative history-graded changes
    changes that occur in most members of a cohort as a result of factors at work during a specific, well-defined historical period
  16. nonnormative changes
    changes that result from unique, unshared events
  17. critical period
    a specific period in development when an organism is especially sensitive to the presence (or absence) of some particular kind of experience
  18. sensitive period
    a span of months or years during which a child may be particularly responsive to specific forms of experience or particularly influenced by their absence
  19. atypical development
    development that deviates from the typical developmental pathway in a direction harmful to the individual
  20. naturalistic observation
    the process of studying people in their normal environments
  21. case study
    an in-depth examination of a single individual
  22. laboratory observation
    observation of behavior under controlled conditions
  23. survey
    data-collection method in which participants respond to questions
  24. population
    the entire group that is of interest to a researcher
  25. sample
    subset of a group that is of interest to a researcher who participates in a study
  26. representative sample
    a sample that has the same characteristics as the population to which a study's findings apply
  27. correlation
    a relationship between two variables that can be expressed as a number ranging from -1.00 to +1.00
  28. experiment
    a study that tests a causal hypothesis
  29. experimental group
    the group in an experiment that receives that treatment the experimenter thinks will produce a particular effect
  30. control group
    the group in an experiment that receives either no special treatment or a neutral treatment
  31. independent variable
    the presumed causal element in an experiment
  32. dependent variable
    the characteristic or behavior that is expected to be affected by the independent variable
  33. cross-sectional design
    a research design in which groups of people of different ages are compared
  34. longitudinal design
    a research design in which people in a single group are studied at different times in their lives
  35. sequential design
    a research design that combines cross-sectional and longitudinal examinations of development
  36. cohort effects
    findings that are the result of historical factors to which one age group in a cross-sectional study has been exposed
  37. ethnography
    a detailed description of a single culture or context
  38. research ethics
    the guidelines researchers follow to protect the rights of animals used in research and humans who participate in studies
  39. human development
    scientific study of age related changes in behaviors, thinking, emotion, and personality
  40. 17th and 18th century
    originally focused on early development. our development "plateaued". there wasn't much development passed 20s
  41. john locke
    believed that when we were born, our environment determined our development "clean slate"
  42. 18th century rosseau
    disagreed with clean slate, we were born w/ inherit good. depending on what happened to us determined if we kept the good
  43. 19th century - Stanely Hall
    looked at his children. very subjective. found norms or standards common among many children. normal is subjective. it is a matter of perspective
  44. mechanistic model of development
    when we are born and when we develop, our environment determines how we develop
  45. organismic model
    the opposite of mechanistic model. when we are born we have an inner push to develop in a positive fashion
  46. (context)ual model
    pieces of the mechanistic and organismic models. most important part is the context in which something occurs
  47. context
    culture, religion, territory, etc.
  48. contextual -> biopsychosocial model
    every piece of us is a combination and any impact on one area will impact every other area, whether we know it or not
  49. parts of biopsychosocial model
    physical, social, cognitive, moral, and intellectual
  50. Bronfenbremmer
    developed the chromosystem
  51. microsystem
    anything we're a part of. ex. family, church, school, etc.
  52. mesosystem
    connector b/w microsystem and exosystem. anywhere that connects. ex. teacher
  53. exosystem
    outside of us that impacts you. ex. a parents job, friends parents
  54. macrosystem
    a global world. anything out there that is far from being connected to us, but definitely impacts us. ex. president's state of the union
  55. chromosystem
    timeline of events and how they effect us at a certain age
  56. hawthorne effect
    people behave better when they know they are being studied
  57. subject bias
    subject answers questions with some sort of assumption
  58. experimenter bias
    experimenter bias - experimenter may give hints as to what the experiment is about
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Dev Psy 217
2014-02-12 22:10:03

flash cards for quiz 1 of psy 217
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