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Who are the Behaviorists?
- Russian physiologist and
- veterinarian who identified processes
- by which dogs “learn” basic behaviors.
- Called “classical Conditioning”.
- B Watson (1878 – 1958)
- American Psychologist at Johns Hopkins University.
- Built on Pavlov’s work, particularly in how people develop fears and how to maximize advertising’s effectiveness
- Become a fiery advocate for “Behaviorism” as the only scientific psychological theory.
B.F. Skinner (1904 – 1990)
- American psychologist at Harvard University
- Studied learning in animals, particularly in how the environment can “shape” a persons behavior through reinforcement & punishment.
- Equally as fiery as Watson – referred to as “radical behaviorist”.
- Called “Operant Conditioning”
What is the behavioral perspective?
- the human mind Blank slate, molded by the
- environment (association, reward and punishment)
In the behavioral perspective, What causes mental problems?How does one improve mental functioning
The environment “encourages” problem behavior
The environment “encourages” adaptive behaviors
Who is Aaron Beck?
Training: Trained as psychoanalyst and medical doctor at Yale, and worked at the University of Pennsylvania medical School.
Claim to fame: Founder of “Cognitive Behavioral” perspective
- Accomplishments: Major contributions to clinical practice
- Very prolific writer
- Viewed brain as computer, with software would develop in response to experiences
Viewed environment of primary importance whereas the cognitive behaviorists focus on beliefs
What is Cognitive behavioral perspective?
Mind is like computer and life experiences is programmed to think scertain ways
In the Cognitive-Behavioral perspective, What causes mental problems?How does one improve mental functioning?
Distorted and inaccurate beliefs
Reprogram the brain where more accurate beliefs be developed
Who is Carl Rogers?
Training: Got a Ph.D. in child studies from Columbia University. Held positions in Psychology at Ohio State University, Rochester, University of Washington, and University of Chicago.
- Claim to fame: Founder of “Humanistic” or “Client-centered therapy”
- Accomplishments: Very active in post-WWII psychology. With massive numbers of veterans returning from war, he was instrumental in developing training programs for psychology.
- Prolific writer
- Active in world politics. Nominated for the Nobel Peace prize for his work in Belfast, South Africa, Brazil and the USSR.
Believed humans driven to crative and altruistic activities- actual self
Society developes the out of touch self
What is the humanistic perspective?
The human mind product of free will. Collection of choices and experiences
In the humanistic perspective, What
causes mental problems? How
does one improve mental functioning?
Incongruence between a persons actual self and ideal self
Promote congruence between actual and ideal self
Who is Sigmund Freud?
Training: medical doctor, and studied academic psychology with Wundt.
- Claim to fame: Founder of “Psycho-analysis”Accomplishments:
- Worked at a variety of clinics, hospitals and treatment facilities.
- Prolific writer
- Developed a number of psychological techniques: hypnosis, free association, dream analysis.
Roots of patients problems out of awareness
Contributions to science but much been discredited as either inaccurate or harmful
What is the psychoanalytic perspective?
the human mind is a set of conflicting forces, some of which are primitive (aggressive, animalistic and sexual) and others are civilized, through development of childhood.
In the psychoanalytic perspective, What causes mental problems?How does one improve mental functioning?
Unconscious conflict between animalistic drives and early developmental experiences.
Make the unconscious conscious
In the biological perspective, What causes mental problems? How does one improve mental functioning?
Improve functioning through medicine and medicinal procedures
What is the biological perspective?
The human mind is the Product of basic neurological processes
Who is Emil Kraepelin?
Training: German medical doctor, and studied academic psychology with Wundt.
- Claim to fame: Founder of “scientific psychiatry”Accomplishments: Worked primarily as a physician in various University Hospitals, focusing on abnormal behavior. Prolific Writer
- Developed the first psychiatric manual (pre-DSM)
Abnormal behavior reflects diseases and underlying cause is genetic in orgin.
In the cognitive perspective, What causes mental problems?How does one improve mental functioning?
Improve cognitive abilities, exercise, drugs or reducing cognitive demands
What is the cognitive perspective?
The human mind is the product of basic abilities from the brain (memory, attention, language, emotion impulse control)
Who is Wilhelm Wundt?
Training: Medical doctor and physiologist
Claim to fame: Father of Experimental Psychology
- Accomplishments:Taught 1st Psychology course
- Wrote first psychophysics books and started first journal
- Opened 1st Psychology Lab
- Mentored virtually everyone in his generation.
Structuralism (later called “Cognitive Psychology”) – Focus brain based on abilities – studying mental processes under laboratory conditions (i.e., “experimental introspection”).
What are the six types of psychological perspectives?
What is the scientific method, what are the steps, and why do we use it?
- Develop a question
- Form a hypothesis
- Test the Hypothesis
- Come to a conclusion
- Share the results
What is a hypothesis? A theory?
What are the differences?
Hypothesis:testable prediction of what happens under certain conditions
Theory:Comprehensive explanations of observable effects
What are the hallmarks of a good theory?
- As few assumptions and as many predictions as possible
- Should predict new observations
- Falsifiable—makes sufficiently precise predictions that evidence could be found to contradict it
- Principle of Parsimony—preference for simple explanations
What does is mean to say a question is empirical or scientific?
- Can be tested
- A matter of proof and evidence, not belief
What are the different types of validity?
- o Validity--The extent to which a concept, conclusion or measurement is well founded and corresponds accurately to the world
- o Ecological Validity
- How much does the setting approximate a real world setting
- Internal Validity
- To what extent is your manipulation causing the effects
- External Validity
- To what extent can the results be generalized to other people/animals and situations
What is the difference between a population and a sample?
- Population: the entire group of individuals to be considered
- Sample: the small number of people that are studied/ examined out of the larger population
What is naturalistic observation?
- A careful examination of what many people or nonhuman animals do under more or less natural conditions
- Advantages :Realistic picture of what is occurring in the natural setting
- Disadvantages:Observer bias, Blind
- Each naturalistic setting is unique
What is laboratory observation?
- Sometimes naturalistic observation is not a practical or feasible observation
- Advantage:Great level of control over the situation, Use of equipment
- • An artificial setting/situation
- • Observer bias
What are case studies?
- An individual is studied in great detail
- Advantages:Tremendous amount of detail. Only way to get certain kinds of information
- Disadvantage:Can’t necessarily apply information to others.Observation bias
What are surveys?
- Series of questions about a topic
- Advantages:Private information, Tremendous amount of data on a large group of people
- Disadvantages :Question wording and order, Truthfulness of statements--Courtesy bias
How are experiments conducted in psychology?
- Allows researchers to determine the cause of a behavior
- A study in which the investigator manipulates at least one variable while measuring at least one other variable
- Independent Variable:The item that an experiment changes or controls
- Dependent Variable:The item that an experiment measures to determine how it was affected
- Extraneous/Confounding variable: Influence the outcome of an experiment; not the variables that are actually of interest
- Operational Definition
- Experimental group
- Control group
- Random Assignment
What is experimenter bias and how do we correct for it?
- Experimenter Bias:Tendency of an experiment to distort (unintentionally) the procedure or results of an experiment based on the expected outcome of the study
- Single-blind study: either the observer or the participant are unaware of the treatment given
- Double-blind study: both the observer and participant are unaware of the treatment given
Explain the roles of animals in research.
- Shorter lives
- Easier to control
- Used in ways people cannot
- Limitations:Unnecessary pain or suffering
- Only used in about 7% of all psychological studies