Ch. 8 Unit 2

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Author:
NurseJoy
ID:
261699
Filename:
Ch. 8 Unit 2
Updated:
2014-02-12 19:05:57
Tags:
Microbiology microbial metabolism
Folders:
Microbiology
Description:
Microbial Metabolism
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  1. Metabolism
    • the sum of all chemical reactions within a living organism. 
    • Catabolic 
    • Anabolic
  2. Catabolic
    • breaks things down to release ATP
    • (cats destroy things)
  3. Anabolic
    • Builds stuff with the ATP
    • (ants build things)
  4. Heat
    where part of the energy is lost in Catabolic reactions
  5. Catalyst
    substances that can speed up a chemical reaction without themselves being altered
  6. Enzymes
    • speed up the rate of metabolic reactions
    • made up of apoenzyme and a cofactor
    • names are usually abbreviated and usually end in -ase
  7. Substrate
    • What enzymes work with 
    • Enzymes can only with a specific substrate but many enzymes can use the same substrate
  8. Cofactor
    • can be inorganic or organic
    • inorganic is a metal ion
    • organic is a coenzyme that is comprised of vitamins
  9. How an enzyme works
    • a substrate touches a specific spot on the enzyme called the active site. 
    • this connection creates the enzyme-substrate complex
    • the substrate is then broken down by the enzyme
    • the changed substrate now moves away from the enzyme
    • the enzyme is now free to change another substrate
  10. Temperature
    • elevated temp increases the speed of a reaction 
    • lower temp slows the reaction
    • too high of a temp causes the enzyme to denature and be unusable
  11. PH
    There is an optimum PH level the enzymes like and above or below that level they don't react as fast
  12. Inhibitors
    • competitive inhibitors
    • noncompetitive inhibitors
    • feedback inhibition
  13. Competitive Inhibitors
    • compete with the normal substrate for active site of the enzymes
    • So they block the actual intended substrates from being able to touch the enzymes
  14. noncompetitive inhibitors
    Alters the enzymes but doesn't touch the active site
  15. Feedback inhibition
    a regulatory mechanism that prevents the cell from making excessive end-product- acts on enzymes already synthesized
  16. Respiration
    • Generate ATP by removing a series of electron acceptors to molecules of oxygen (in the case of aerobic respiration) or other inorganic molecules (in the case of anaerobic respiration)
    • Bacteria do it in the plasma membrane
    • Eukaryotas do it in the mitochondrial membrane
  17. Fermentation
    • Does not produce as much energy as respiration 
    • anaerobic

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