The Americans Textbook Chapter 26: Cold War Conflicts
The Cold War
The conflict between the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. in which neither nation directly confronted the other on the battlefield. However, foreign policy (and somewhat of domestic policy) was dominated by this conflict.
Presidents during the Cold War
Nine presidents will be involved, from President Truman to President Bush (the father Bush #41). (seven soviet leaders)
The Unites States wanted to:
♦ Create a new world order in which all nations had the right of self determination
♦ Gain access to raw materials and markets for its industries
♦ Rebuild European government to ensure stability and to create new markets for American goods
♦ Reunite Germany, believing that Europe would be more secure if Germany were productive
The Soviets wanted to:
♦Encourage communism in other countries as part of the worldwide struggle between workers and the wealthy
♦ Rebuild its war-ravaged economy using Eastern Europe's industrial equipment and raw materials
♦ Control Eastern Europe to balance U.S. influence in Western Europe\
♦ Keep Germany divided and weak so that it would never again threaten the Soviet Union
U.S. began a policy of containment (preventing any extension of communist rule to other countries)
Soviet Union installed communist government across Eastern Europe to prevent future invasions from the west. this "Iron Curtain" acted as a buffer for the Soviet Union.
U.S. sent $400 million in aid to Greece and Turkey, " to support free people who are resisting outside pressures."
Secretary of State George Marshall proposed the U.S. provide aid (over $13 billion over 5 years) to all European nations that needed it. this as not against "not against any country or doctrine but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos".
The Berlin Airlift
June 1948 - May 1949
U.S., England, and France will airlift supplies into West Berlin, after Stalin closes all access into West Berlin.
Supported by the U.S.
Supported by the U.S.S.R.
Nationalist flee China and Communists begin their rule
The Korean War
June, 1950 - July, 1953
Nickname: The Forgotten War
North Korea (Communist)
Leader: Kim Il Sung
South Korea (Democratic)
Leader: Syngman Rhee
North Korean troops invade South Korea and capture the capital Seoul
North Koreans push UN troops south to the perimeter of Pusan (located in south eastern part of South Korea)
September - October 1950
Un troops under MacArthur landed at Inchon (located southwest of Seoul) and move north from Pusan.
This two pronged attack drives the North Koreans out of South Korea.
UN troops continue into North Korea, take Pyongyang, and advance to the Yalu River.
November 1950 - January 1951
The Chinese intervene and force UN troops to retreat across the 38th Parallel
wanted to use atomic bombs against China and North Korea
As commander in chief in all U.S. military, he has the final say in all military decisions
Fired General MacArthur April, 1951 for insubordination
Cease fire called
The Korean War ends.
North Korea and South Korea are split at the 38th parallel with a demilitarized zone (DMZ)