Chapter 3

Card Set Information

Chapter 3
2014-02-12 21:24:28
Biological Bases Beh

Biological Bases of Beh
Show Answers:

  1. A neural impulse is initiated when a neuron’s charge momentarily becomes less negative, or even positive. This event is called:
    an action potential.
  2. Neurons convey information about the strength of stimuli by varying:
    the rate at which they fi re action potentials.
  3. Alterations in activity at dopamine synapses have been implicated in the development of:
  4. Tania just barely avoided a head-on collision on a narrow road. With heart pounding, hands shaking, and body perspiring, Tania recognizes that these are signs of the body’s fight-or-flight response, which is controlled by the:
    sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.
  5. The hindbrain consists of the:
    cerebellum, medulla, and pons.
  6. Juan is watching a basketball game. The neural impulses from his eyes will ultimately travel to his primary visual cortex, but first they must pass through the:
  7. The __________ lobe is to hearing as the occipital lobe is to vision.
  8. Paul has profound difficulty producing spoken language. If his problem is attributable to brain damage, the damage would probably be found in:
    Broca’s area.
  9. Sounds presented to the right ear are registered:
    more quickly in the left hemisphere.
  10. In people whose corpus callosums have not been severed, verbal stimuli are identified more quickly and more accurately:
    when sent to the left hemisphere first.
  11. Hormones are to the endocrine system as __________________ are to the nervous system.
  12. Jenny has brown hair and blue eyes and is 5’8” tall. What is being described is Jenny’s:
  13. Adopted children’s similarity to their biological parents is generally attributed to ______________; adopted children’s similarity to their adoptive parents is generally attributed to ______________.
    heredity; the environment
  14. In evolutionary theory, _____________ refers to the reproductive success of an individual organism relative to the average reproductive success in the population.
  15. For which of the following assertions is the empirical evidence strongest?
    The two cerebral hemispheres are specialized to handle different types of cognitive tasks.
  16. Like a tree. Also, each branch is a telephone wire that carries incoming messages to you.
    • d.
    • Dendrite
  17. Like the insulation that covers electrical wires.
    f. Myelin
  18. Like a silicon chip in a computer that receives and transmits information between input and output devices as well as between other chips.
    • b.
    • Neuron
  19. Like an electrical cable that carries information.
    • e.
    • Axon
  20. Like the maintenance personnel who keep things clean and in working order so the operations of the enterprise can proceed.
    • a.
    • Glia
  21. Like the nozzle at the end of a hose, from which water is squirted.
    • g.
    • Terminal button
  22. Like a railroad junction, where two trains may meet.
    • h.
    • Synapse
  23. A transmitter involved in the regulation of sleep and perhaps aggression.
    • b.
    • and d. Serotonin and norepinephrine
  24. Chemicals that resemble opiate drugs in structure and that are involved in pain relief.
    e. Endorphins
  25. A neurotransmitter for which abnormal levels have been implicated in schizophrenia.
    • c.
    • Dopamine
  26. The only neurotransmitter between motor neurons and voluntary muscles.
    • a.
    • Acetylcholine
  27. Case 1. Miriam is exhibiting language defi cits. In particular, she does not seem to comprehend the meaning of words.
    Left hemisphere damage, probably to Wernicke’s area
  28. Case 2. Camille displays tremors and muscular rigidity and is diagnosed as having Parkinsonism.
    Deficit in dopamine synthesis in an area of the midbrain
  29. Case 3. Ricardo, a 28-year-old computer executive, has gradually seen his strengthand motor coordination deteriorate badly. He is diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis.
    Degeneration of myelin sheaths surrounding axons
  30. Case 4. Wendy is highly irrational, has poor contact with reality, and reports hallucinations.She is given a diagnosis of schizophrenic disorder.
    • Disturbance in dopamine or glutamate
    • activity, possibly associated with enlarged
    • ventricles in the brain or epigenetic changes
  31. The findings from family studies indicate that heredity may influence a trait if _______________show more trait similarity than _______________.
    Closer relatives; more distant relatives
  32. The findings from twin studies suggest that heredity influences a trait if __________________show more trait similarity than _______________.
    Identical twins; fraternal twins
  33. The findings from adoption studies suggest that heredity influences a trait if children adopted at a young age share more trait similarity with their________________ than their _________________.
    Biological parents; adoptive parents
  34. The findings from family studies, twin studies, or adoption studies suggest that heredity does not influence a trait when ________________ is not related to _____________________
    Genetic overlap or closeness; trait similarity
  35. This 19-century theorist, who invented the concepts of fitness and natural selection, was the original architect of evolutionary theory.
    Charles Darwin
  36. These researchers used axons taken from squid to conduct influential research on the biochemical bases of the neural impulse.
    Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley
  37. In the 1950s, this research team discovered self-stimulation sites in the rat brain, suggesting that the limbic system may include “pleasure centers.”
    James Olds and Peter Milner
  38. This researcher showed that morphine exerts its effects by binding to specialized receptors in the brain, leading to the discovery of endorphins.
    Solomon Snyder
  39. These researchers conducted the original split-brain studies, which demonstrated that the right and left hemispheres of the brain each have their own special abilities.
    Roger Sperry and Michael Gazzaniga