A&P Chapter3-5

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  1. What is the basic unit of body
    The cell
  2. What are the principal parts of the cell?
    Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and the nucleus
  3. Describe the Plasma Membrane?
    • o   Plasma membrane: forms the cell flexible outer surface separating everything that is internal and external  it is also known as a selective barrier this means that it regulates the flow of materials in and out. Of the cell plays an important role in the communication of cells and between cells and the environment
  4. Describe the cytoplasm?
    consists of all the cellular contents between the plasma membrane and the nucleus.
  5. what is cytosol?
     the fluid portion of cytoplasm, contains water, dissolved solutes and suspended particles.
  6. Describe the nucleus?
    is a large organelle that houses most of the cell's DNA
  7. What do we find within the nucleus
    nucleus each chromosomes is a single molecule of DNA associated with several proteins  containing thousands of units called genes
  8. What is fluid mosaic model?
    a molecular arrangement of the plasma membrane resembles a continually moving sea of fluid lipids that contains a mosaic of many different proteins; some are said to float freely like icebergs in the lipid sea
  9. what is an organelle?
    organelles have special characteristics and functions examples include, ribosomes, cytoskeleton and mitochondria.
  10. Define inclusion
    a body or particle recognizably distinct from the substance in which it is embedded.
  11. define cytology?
    concerned with the structure and function of plant and animal cells.
  12. Lipids in the body?
  13. -          75% phospholipids in bilayer, hydrophobic f. acid tails and neg. charged phosphate group
    • -          5% glycolipids, receptors, help cells stick together (glycocalyx)
    • -          20% cholesterol, strengthen and support
  14. What is integral proteins?
    extend into or through the lipid bilayer among the fatty acid tails and are firmly embedded in in it. most integral proteins are transmembrane proteins.
  15. Describe transmembrane proteins?
    they span the entire lipid bilayer and protrude into both the cytosol and extracellular fluid.
  16. define peripheral proteins?
    are not as firmly embedded in the membrane attached to polar heads of membrane lipids or to integral proteins at the inner or outer surface
  17. what are the functions of integral proteins?
    • form ion channels pores or holes that specific ions such as potassium can flow through to get into our out of the cell,
    • Carriers: selectively moving polar substance or ion from one side of the membrane  to the other 'aka' transporters
    • receptors serve as cellular recognitions sites each receptor recognizes and binds to a specific type of molecule.
    • enzymes: that catalyze specific chemical reactions at the inside or outside surface of the cell.
    • linkers: that anchor proteins in the plasma membrane of neighboring cells to one another or to protein filaments inside or outside the cell.
  18. what are glycoproteins?
    integral proteins that have carbohydrates groups attached to the ends that protrude into the extracellular fluid.
  19. What are functions of peripheral proteins?
    serve as enzymes, linkers and help support the plasma membrane
  20. Who are the identity makers and what do they do?
    the glycoproteins and glycolipids; they may enable a cell to recognize other cells. help distinguish your cells from anyone else
  21. define selective permeability?
    plasma membranes permit some substances to pass more readily than others
  22. Define concentration gradient?
    is a difference in the concentration of a chemical from one place to another such as from the inside to the outside of the plasma membrane ex. cytosol or the extracellular fluid
  23. what is passive processes?
    a substance moves down its concentration or electrical gradient to cross the membrane using only its own kinetic energy
  24. what is active processes?
    cellular energy is used to drive the substance 'uphill' against its concentration or electrical gradient cellular level used is ATP.
  25. define electrochemical gradient?
    the combined influence of the concentration gradient and the electrical gradient on movement of a particular ion
  26. what is osmotic pressure?
    the solution with the impermeable solute also exerts a force
  27. what is tonicity?
    is a measure's of the solution's ability to change the volume of cells by altering their water content.
  28. Define hypotonic?
    a solution that has a lower concentration of solutes than the cytosol inside. "like it has too much water"
  29. Define hypertonic ?
    high concentration of solutes than does the cytosol inside. "like dehydration"
  30. What is the function of sodium-potassium pump?
    the most prevalent primary active transport mechanism expels sodium ions from cells and brings potassium ions in.
  31. define anti-porters?
    moves two substances in opposite directions across the membrane
  32. define symporters?
    move two substances in the same direction
  33. Define vesicle?
    little blister or bladder; is a small spherical sac a variety of substances are transported in vesicles
  34. what is endocytosis?
    materials that move into a cell in a vesicle formed from the plasma membrane.
  35. What  is exocytosis?
    materials that move out of a cell by the fusion with the plasma membrane
  36. What is phagocytosis?
    is a form of endocytosis in which the cell engulfs large solid particles such as worn-out cells, whole bacteria, or viruses.
  37. what is pinocytosis?
    a from of endocytosis in which tiny droplets of extracellular fluid are taken up.
  38. define phagosome?
    vacuole in the cytoplasm of a cell, containing a phagocytized particle enclosed within a part of the cell membrane.
  39. What is the function of the cytoskeleton?
    serves as a scaffold that helps to determine a cells shape and to organize the cellular contents; also aids movement of organelles within the cell, of chromosomes during cell division and of whole cells such as phagocytes.
  40. What are functions of centrosomes?
    the pericentriolar material of the centrosome contains tubulins that build microtubules in non-dividing cells. the pericentriolar material of the centrosome forms the mitotic spindle during cell division
  41. What are the functions of the cilia and flagella?
    Cilia move fluids along a cells surface, a flagellum moves entire cell.
  42. What is the functions of ribosomes?
    synthesize proteins destined for insertion in the plasma membrane or secretion form the cell. and use it in the cytosol
  43. what are functions of the endoplasmic reticulum? and Smooth ER?
    • synthesizes glycoproteins and phospholipids that are transferred into cellular organelles inserted the plasma membrane
    • Smooth ER synthesizes fatty acids and steroids and stores and releases calcium ions that trigger contraction in muscle cells  
  44. what are functions of the Golgi complex?
    modifies and sorts packages and transports proteins received from the rough ER and forms secretory vesicles that discharge processed proteins via exocytosis into extracellular fluid
  45. Functions of lysomes?
    digest substances that enter a cell via endocytosis and transport final products of digestion into cytosol, accomplish extracellular digestion, and carries out the digestion of worn-out organelles
  46. What are functions of mitochondria?
    generates ATP through reactions of aerobic cellular respiration; play an important early role in apoptosis
  47. Functions of the nucleus?
    Controls cellular structure, directs cellular activities, and produces ribosomes in nucleoli
  48. Describe microtubules?
    are the largest of the cytoskeletal components and are long un-branched hollow tubes composed mainly of the protein tubulin
  49. What is Messenger RNA
    directs synthesis of a protein
  50. What is rRNA Ribosomal?
    joins with ribosomal proteins to make ribosomes
  51. Transfer RNA
    binds to an amino acid and holds it in place on a ribosomes until it is incorporated into a protein during translation.
  52. What are the bases of DNA
    Guanine, thymine cytosine, and adenine
  53. What are the bases of RNA
    Uracil,  cytosine, guanine, adenine
  54. What is somatic cell?
    is any cell of the body other than a germ cell
  55. Describe somatic cell division?
    a cell undergoes nuclear division called mitosis and cytokinesis
  56. What is a reproductive cell division?
    the mechanisms that produce gametes the cells needed to form the next generation of sexually reproducing organisms
  57. What is the reproductive cell division processes is called?
  58. Meiosis during the interphase?
    the cell replicates its DNA
  59. Mitotic Phase: During Prophase
    chromatin fibers condense into paired chromatids; nucleolus and nuclear envelope each moves to an opposite pole of the cell
  60. Mitotic: Metaphase
    centromeres of chromatid pairs line up at metaphase plate
  61. Mitotic: Anaphase
    centromeres split; identical sets of chromosomes move to opposite poles of cells
  62. Mitotic: Telophase:
    nuclear envelopes and nucleoli reappear; chromosomes resume chromatin  form  mitotic spindle disappears.
  63. Define cytokinesis?
    cytoplasmic division; contractile ring forms cleavage furrow around center of cell; dividing cytoplasm into separate and equal portions.
  64. What is meiosis?
    is the process that produces haploid gametes it consists of two successive nuclear divisions the net result is two haploid gametes that are genetically unlike each other and unlike the starting diploid parent cell that produced them two haploid became 4 hapliods.
  65. What is hyperplasia?
    the enlargement of an organ or tissue caused by an increase in the reproduction rate of its cells, often as an initial stage in the development of cancer
  66. What are the types of tissues
  67. a.       Epithelium
    • b.      Connective
    • c.       Muscular
    • d.      Nervous
  68. What is a tissue?
  69. o   A tissue is a group of similar cells that usually has a similar embryological origin and is specialized for a particular functions
  70. Describe epithelial tissues?
  71. o   cover body surfaces and lines hollow organs, body cavities, and ducts. Form glands, this tissue allow interaction between both internal and external environments.
  72. What are connective tissue types?
    protects and supports the body and its organs

    • §  Bind organs together
    • §  Stores energy reserve fats
    • §  And help provide  the body with immunity to disease causing organisms
  73. Muscular tissues are what?
  74. o   are composed specialized for contractions and generation is force, Generates heat and warms the body
  75. What is nervous tissues?
  76. o   Detects changes in a variety of conditions inside and outside
    §  They respond by generating electrical signals called nerve action potentials that activate muscular contractions 
  77. Describe the structure and functions of the five main types of cell junctions?
  78. o   5 junctions are: tight junctions, adherens junctions, desmosomes, hemi desmosomes, and gap junctions.
  79. What are adherens?
    contain plaque a dense layer of proteins on the inside of the plasma membrane that attaches both to membrane and to microfilaments of the cytoskeleton
  80. Tight junctions are what?
    consist of weblike strands of tansmembrane proteins that fuse together and seal off passageways between adjacent cells.
  81. what are desmosomes junctions?
    contains plaque and have transmembrane glycoproteins that extend into intercellular space between cells membranes and attach cells to one another.
  82. Hemi Desmosomes junctions?
    look like desmosomes but they don't attach to adjacent cells they have integrins not cadherins they anchor cells not to each other but to the basement membrane
  83. Gap junctions?
     are proteins called connexins form tiny fluid filled tunnels called connexons that connect neighboring cells . transfer nutrients and waste and enables nerve or muscle impulses to spread rapidly
  84. Describe basement membrane
  85. o   A thin extracellular layer that commonly  consist of two layers, basal lamina and reticular lamina
  86. What are the two types of cells that epithelial tissues divide into?
  87. o   Covering and lining
    o   Glandular
  88. Types of cell shapes and arrangements?
  89. o   Simple squamous epithelium: lungs, lines cardiovascular and lympatic system
    • o   Simple cuboidal epithelium: lines kidney tubules
    • o   Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium: mucus in goblet cells
    • o   Ciliated simple columnar epithelium: respiratory tract and uterine
    • o   Psedostratified Columnar: male of part urethra
    • o   Stratified squamous epithelium : lines mouth, vagina, esophagus
    • o   Stratified cuboidal: ducts sweat glands and esophageal glands
    • o   Stratified columnar large excretory ducts of some glands Transitional Epithelium: urinary bladder
  90. Describe endocrine and exocrine glands
  91. o   Endocrine: called hormones enter the interstitial fluid then diffuse directly into the bloodstream
    o   Exocrine: secretes their products into ducts that empty onto the surface of a covering and lining epithelium such as the skin surface or the lumen of a hollow organ.
  92. Exocrine; merocrine glands, approcrine, and holocrine glands describe each?
  93. ·         Merocrine glands: secretions are synthesized on ribosomes attached to rough ER most of the exocrine glands are merocrine
    • o   Examples include: salivary glands and pancreas
    • ·         Apocrine glands:  accumulate their secretory product at the apical surface of the secreting cell 
    • o   Examples are sweat glands
    • ·         Holocrine: accumulate a secretory product in their cytosol. Example of this is the sebaceous glands in the skin
  94. Describe connective tissue?
  95. ·         Connective Tissue : is the most abundant and widely distributed tissue in the body.
    • o   Protect and support, and strengthen other tissues; protects and insulate internal organs
    • o   Connective tissues consist two basic elements
    • §  Extracellular matrix: a material located between its widely spaced cells
    • ·         Which consists of protein fibers and ground substance which is the material between the cells and fibers
    • ·         The fiber are secreted by the connective tissues cells and account for many functional properties
    • §  Connective tissue is also very avascular except for cartilage
  96. Cells include in connective tissue:
  97. ·         Fibroblasts (secretes matrix): are usually the most numerous secrete fibers and certain components in the ground substance
    • ·         Macrophages (perform phagocytosis):develop from monocytes a type of white blood cell; they engulf bacteria and cellular debris
    • ·         Plasma cells (secretes antibodies): develop from white blood cells called B lymphocytes attack foreign substances, 
    • ·          mast cells (produce histamine “allergies”) and adipose cells (store fat):
  98. Chondroblast:
    are found in cartilage
  99. where are osteoblasts found?
    they are found in the bone; blast cell retain the ability for cell division
  100. what is hyaluronic acid?
  101. o   is a viscous, a slippery substance that bind cells together lubricate joints  and helps maintain shape to eyeballs
  102. What is chondroitin sulfate:
  103. o   provide supports and adhesiveness in cartilage, bone, skin and blood vessels contains keratin sulfate
  104. What is fibronectin?
    binds to both collagen fibers main adhesion protein in connective tissues
  105. What is function of fibers?
  106.  function to strengthen the connective tissues 3 types: Collagen, elastic, and reticular
  107. Loose connective tissues: are loosely arranged between cells
  108. ·         Areolar connective tissues
    • ·         Adipose tissue
    • ·         Reticular connective
  109.  Dense connective tissue: contain more fibers which are thicker and densely packed have fewer cells than loose connective tissue
    •   than loose connective tissue
    • ·         Dense regular connective tissue
    • ·         Dense irregular connective tissue
    • ·         Elastic connective tissue
  110. what is cartilage?
    consists of a dense network of collagen fibers and elastic fibers embedded in chondroitin sulfate a gel-like component of ground substance : contain the chondrocytes

    • ·         Hyaline
    • ·         Fibrocartilage
    • ·         Elastic cartilage
  111. describe bone tissue?
      Bones and organs are composed of several different connective tissues including bone and osseous tissue
  112. What are examples of liquid connective tissue?
    Blood tissue, and lymph
  113. What can we conclude about Connective tissue?
    highly vascular except cartilage hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage
  114. What are membranes?
  115. ·         are flat sheets of pliable tissue that cover or line a part of the body a filter, the only exception is the basement membrane.
  116. What are epithelial membranes?
    Mucous, serous and synovial
  117. what is the serous membrane?
  118. ·         Lines closed cavities (pleura, pericardium, peritoneum) covers the organs in the cavities these membranes consist of parietal layer and a visceral layer
    • ·         Made of epithelial and connective tissue if covers an organ visceral layer
    • ·         Function: to prevent friction between organs
    • ·         Mesothelium secretes serous fluid a watery lubricant that allow organs to glide around
    • ·         Lines the heart cavity pericardium
    • ·         Lines the pleura is the lungs
  119. What is mucous?
  120. ·         Lines cavities that open to the exterior such as gastrointestinal tract
  121. What does the synovial membrane?
  122. ·         Lines joint cavities, bursae and tendon sheaths consist of areolar connective tissue and don’t have an epithelial layer.
    • ·         Only Connective tissues
    • ·         Lines the cavities of freely moveable joints
  123. Muscular tissues consist of cells called muscle fibers that are specialized for contraction 3 types?
    • §  Skeletal muscle ; voluntary
    • §  Cardiac muscle ; involuntary
    • §  Smooth muscle; involuntary does not have a striated

    • o   Uses ATP to generate force
    • o   “SACRO” think muscles
    • o   Provide protections
  124. Nervous tissues composed of neurons and neuroglia
  125. o   Consists of Neurons and Neuroglia
    • §  Neurons stimulate into nerve impulses and conducts nerve impulses to other cells.
    • §  React by their stimuli
    • o   Cell body contains the nucleus and other organelles
    • o   Dendrites: are highly branched which produces short cell processes they are the major receiving or input portion of a neuron.
    • o   Axon is a single thin cylindrical process that may be very long
    • o   Cause muscles to contract and glands to secrete
    • o   Neuroglia
    • §  Do not generate or conduct nerve muscles
  126. How is tissue repair. and what type can regenerate tissue? type is the fastest?
  127. §  Epithelial and Connective Tissue
    • o   Which type is the fastest
    • §  Connective
    • o   Muscle tissue does not really regenerate
  128. Aging and Tissue?
  129. o   Tissues heal faster and leave less obvious scars in the young than in the aged; surgery performed on fetuses leaves no scars
  130. ·         Structure of the Skin?
  131. o   Skin is known as the cutaneous membrane
    o   It is the largest organ of the body in both surface area and weight
  132. Skin consists of 2 main parts?
  133. §  he superficial thinner portion composed of epithelial tissue is the epidermis
    §  The deeper and thicker connective tissue portion is the dermis
  134. ·         Skin: means
  135. o   The organs of the integumentary system include the skin and its accessory structures including hair, nails and glands, as well as blood vessels, muscles , nerves
    • o   All four types of basic tissues
    • o   Epithelium includes hair, nails and the epidermis skin
  136. ·         Function of the system:
  137. o   For protection,
    • o   Regulation of body temperature
    • o   Sensory perceptions : general body sensations
    • o   Synthesis of vitamin D
    • o   Emotional expression
    • o   Excretes and absorbs substances
    • o   Stores blood
  138. What is deeper than the dermis
  139. ·         deep in the dermis BUT NOT PART OF SKIN is called the subcutaneous (sub Q-layers) also called hypodermis consists of areolar and adipose tissues
    o   by dilating blood vessels we can keep hit in and out
  140. Epidermis?
  141. o   Is composed of keratinized stratified squamous
    o   It contains 4 principal types of cells
  142. What are keratinocytes?
  143. ·         skin color
    • ·         90% of epidermal cells are keratinocytes produce the protein keratin
    • ·         Produce lamellar granules, which release a water-repellent sealant the that decreases water entry and loss
  144. Melanocytes?
  145. ·         8% are melanocytes
    • ·         Produce the pigment melanin
    • ·         This contributes to skin color ad absorbs damaging ultraviolet light Act as umbrellas to protect DNA and will give some to the keratinocytes
  146. §  Langerhans cells
  147. ·         Called epidermal dendritic cells arise from red bone marrow
    • ·         Their role in the immune response is to help other cells of the immune system recognize an invading microbe and destroy it
    • ·         They go around eating things are considered macrophages
  148. §  Merkel Cells:
  149. ·         Touch, sensory cells
  150. o   Layers of Skin composed of four layer:
  151. §  Stratum Basale
    • ·         Deepest layesr of the skin active reproduction in cells and the merkels and langarhans cells found there
    • §  Stratum spionsum 8-10 layers thick keratinocytes
    • ·         Tight junctions that hold cells together, cells die
    • ·         They have Langerhans cells
    • §  Stratum Granuolosum:
    • ·         Only keratin found and cells are still alive
    • ·         They are undergoing apoptosis
    • §  Stratum lucidum:
    • ·         A lot of thick skin,
    • §  Stratum corneum:
    • ·         Harden  flattened dead keratinocytes the outter dead layer
  152. ·         Types of Skin:
  153. o   Thin (hairy skin) covers all body regions excepts the palsm palmar surfaces of digits and soles
    o   Thick hairless
  154. ·         Skin Pigments:
  155. o   Melanin
    • §  Eumelanin (brown to black)
    • §  Pheomelanin (yellow to red)
    • o    
    • o   Nevi: birthmarks or moels are chronic lesions of the skin they are by definition benign
    • o   Maligant melanoma is a cancer of melanocytes
  156. Dermis
  157. o   The second deeper part of the skin, the dermis is composed of dense irregular connective tissue containing collagen and elastic fibers,
    o   The few cells included in the dermis is fibroblasts and some macrophages and few adipocytes near its boundary with the subcutaneous
  158. What two regions of dermis>
  159. §  Papillary region consists of areolar connective tissue containing thin collagen and elastic fibers dermal papillae including capillary loops corpuscles of touch and free nerve endings
    §  Reticular region: which is attached to the subcutaneous layer consists of bundles of thick collagen fibers scattered fibroblasts and various wandering cells
  160. Epidermal ridges
    §  Creates a strong bond between the epidermis and dermis
  161. SubQ cuntaneous layer
    • §  It contains blood vessels and nerves in transit to the more superficial layesr
    • §  It also contains lamellate ( Pacinian corpuscle)  for pressure   Is also called the hypodermis and it attaches the skin to underlying tissues and organs
  162. ·         Accessories of the Skin
  163. o   Hair- Pilus
    • §  The parts of hair include
    • §  Shaft: Above the skin surface
    • §  The follicle; below the level of skin
    • §  A root; penetrates into below the skin surface
    • §  Nerve endings: papilla of the hair brings in blood vessels and
    • §  Hair root plexus: which is sensitive to touch
    • §  Arrector pili makes the hair shaft stand up
    • §  Papilla of the hair and Melanocyte give the hair color
  164. ·         Skin glands:
    Sebaceous, sudoriferous, ceruminous and mammary glands
  165. sebaceous glands
    • §  The secretion p
    • §  part of the gland lies in the dermis
    • §  They secrete an oily substance called sebum which consists of a mixture of triglycerides, cholesterol, proteins, and inorganic salt
    • ·         Sebum prevents excessive evaporation of water from the skin and inhibits the growth fo some but not all the bacteria
    • §  They are oily gland connected to hair follicles
  166. sudoriferous glands
    • §  Two types of Eccrine and apocrine based on their structure and type of secretion
    • §  Eccrine sweat glands is everywhere in the body
    • ·         Function thermoregulation and eliminates small amounts of waste
    • §  Apocrine sweat glands are located mainly in the skin of axilla, groin, areolae and bearded facial regions of adult males. They secrete a slightly viscous sweat
    • This cells release sweat or perspiration
  167. Ceruminous glands
  168. cerumionus gland
    • §  Cerumen (earwax) provides a sticky barrier that prevents entry of foreign bodies into the ear canalExample of a modified gland because they produce a different substance
    • are modified sweat glands located in the ear canal
  169. deep wound healing
    • § §  This process occurs only during wounds that affect only the epidermis; deep wound may extend to the dermis, the edges of the wound usually involve only slight damage to superficial epidermal cells. Because the repaired the healing processes is more complex they occur in 4 phases
    • §  Inflammatory phase, this is where blood clot forms in the wound and loosely unites the wound edges, a vascular and cellular response that helps eliminate microbes, foreign material and dying tissue in preparation for repair, for the neutrophils, monocytes which develop into macrophage that develop into fibroblasts
  170. §  The 3 phases after repair the wound
  171. §  Migratory Phase: the clot becomes a scab, fibroblasts migrate along fibrin threads and begin synthesizing collagen fibers and glycoproteins
    • §  Proliferative: epithelial cells grow extensively
    • §  Maturation phase: the scabs sloughs off the epidermis is restored to normal thickness collagen fibers and become more organized fibroblast begin to disappear and blood vessels are restored to normal
  172. ·         Burns:
  173. o   1st Degree Burns: involves only the epidermis  it is characterized by mild pain
    • o   2nd degree destroy the epidermis and part of the dermis some skin functions are lost 25% of body
    • §  Redness, blister formation edema, and pain result
    • o   3rd degree burn is full thickness burn destroys the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layer over 10% of body
    • §  Most skin functions are lost and the region is numb because sensory nerve endings have been destroyed
    • §  Most serious as to damage and possible infections the lose all the water proof 
    • o   When burns exceeds 70% more than half the victims die
  174. ·         Development of the Integumentary System
  175. o   The epidermis develops from the ectoderm
    • §  Skin and glands come from there too
    • o   The dermis develops from the mesoderm
  176. Aging
    • o wrinkles 
    •   Dehydration and cracking occurs
    • o   Sweat production increases
    • o   An decrease in the numbers of functional melanocytes results in gray hair and atypical skin pigmentation
    • o   Subcutaneous fat is lost, and there is a general decrease in skin thickness
    • o   Nails may also become more brittle
    • o   Decrease in Langerhans cells too
  177. ·         Cancers
    melanoma carcinoma cancer of the squamous epithelial cells  closes to surface, granulosum layer or spinosum can metastasize (travel) o   Basal cell carcinoma: push up to less pressure it may look like a mole but also light pigmented they spread local they really don’t metastize  
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A&P Chapter3-5
2014-02-13 07:01:28
Cellular tissues skin

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