Physiology study Guide Exam 1

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Physiology study Guide Exam 1
2014-02-12 21:56:19
Exam 1
study guide exam 1 physiology
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  1. feedback loop structure that detects change.
  2. The state of dynamic constancy of internal environment
  3. Same element with different number of neutrons
  4. Negatively charged ions
  5. positively charged ions
  6. In an ionic bond one atom gives _____ to another atom so that ______
    one atom gives electrons to another so that they both have filled valance shells
  7. the electron donor in a ionic bond becomes _____
    • positively charged
    • and the atom is now called a cation
  8. In an ionic bond the electron receiver becomes ___
    • negatively charged
    • the atom is now called a anion
  9. most ionic bonds _____ when dissolved in water.
    dissociate (come apart)

    the negative side of water is attracted to the cation and the positive side of water is attracted to the anion.

    water molecules then surround the ions to form hydration spears

    These free ions are critical to many physiological processes "electrolytes"
  10. ionic bonds are based on _____
    hydrogen bonds are based on ____
    electron sharing

    weak bond formed between 2 polar molecules based on opposite charges attracting
  11. what holds the DNA structure together?
    hydrogen bond
  12. The process by which a mRNA molecule is made by making a reverse copy of  a small sequence of DNA gene
  13. Feedback Loops

    The structure that can preform an action that counteracts the change.
  14. A protein that catalyzes chemical reactions
  15. the middleman in feedback loop. Receives info and decides what it needs to be done.
    Integrating Center
  16. Examples of Positive Feedback Loop that occur in the body
    • Fever
    • Breast Feeding
    • Child Birth
  17. The type of lipid that forms the cell membrane
  18. Out of the 3 basic bonds which is the weakest?
    • Hydrogen is the weakest
    • Hydrogen, Ionic, Covalent
  19. using water to break down a molecule
  20. how many electron can shell # 2 hold?

    1st shell can hold 2 electrons and every other shell can hold 8
  21. Outermost electrons in an atom are called
    Valance Electrons
  22. What word do we use if something dissolves in water?

    Hydrophobic - does not dissolve in water
  23. why most feedback loops have antagonistic effects.
    because is something goes up it must come down.

    they work on either side of the effector to make sure that if something goes too high it is corrected or if something goes too low it is corrected
  24. the type where 1 atom donates an electron to another and then opposites attract
    Ionic Bonds
  25. what is the structure inside the cell that takes mRNA and makes it a polypeptide?
  26. what determines how fast a cell/cube can absorb and secrete substances
    • SA:V Ratio
    • surface area to volume ratio
  27. 3x3x3

    what is the volume
    • 27
    • volume is LxWxH
  28. what is surface area to volume ratio
    • divide
    • surface divided by volume
  29. how do you get surface area?
    LxW then times the number of sides

    2*4*6  you know 4*6 is bigger so that will be the four sides

    2*4 will be the 2 sides

    Add the 2 totals to get SA
  30. the higher the SA:V the ____ absorption and secretion rate
  31. CN H2N ON =
  32. dehydration synthesis
    water is formed / released
  33. what is triglyceride
    • 3 fats and glycerol
    • fat = energy   Glycerol = storage
  34. saturated
    • all single bonds
    • packs down
    • solidifies in blood vessels
  35. lipid=
  36. 2 differences between DNA and RNA
    • RNA can leave the nucleus
    • DNA has 2 strands RNA has 1

    DNA uses T and RNA uses U
  37. the molecule, other than fatty acids that both triglycerides and phospholipids have in their structure?
  38. A normal atom has  ___ charge
  39. If an atom has more protons than electrons its charge would be ....
  40. A fatty acid where carbons are all joined together
    saturated fat
  41. what is Made up of building blocks that all have an amino group (amino acid) and carboxyl group
  42. a bond where atoms share electrons
    Covalent Bonds
  43. messages sent from one structure (Feedback)
    • Endocrine System
    • Nervous System
  44. Molecules that have same chemical formula but atoms are arranged different
  45. 1st law of thermodynamics
    energy cannot be transferred or destroyed it can only be converted from 1 form to another
  46. the process by which complex carbs (polysaccharides)are made
    dehydration Synthesis
  47. formed by the breakdown of fat and may have an effect on blood pH
    Keytone Bodies
  48. The precursor molecule to all steroid hormones
  49. Why is ATP so hard to make
    trying to get to negatives together and opposite attracts
  50. which biological molecules are hydrophobic
  51. why on the pH scale is water neutral?
    • when a solution has more hydrogen H than Hydroxide OH- ions =ACID
    • when the solution has more Hydroxide H+ than Hydrogen OH- ions = BASE
    • water has the same number of H+ and OH- it is neutral
  52. why is water such a good solvent?
    it is polar, and it can surround and conquer
  53. polar dissolves polar and non-polar dissolves non-polar
    • TRUE
    • Like dissolves Like
  54. pH is the balance between
    Hydrogen and Hydroxide