Physiology study Guide Exam 1
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feedback loop structure that detects change.
The state of dynamic constancy of internal environment
Same element with different number of neutrons
Negatively charged ions
positively charged ions
In an ionic bond one atom gives _____ to another atom so that ______
one atom gives electrons to another so that they both have filled valance shells
the electron donor in a ionic bond becomes _____
- positively charged
- and the atom is now called a cation
In an ionic bond the electron receiver becomes ___
- negatively charged
- the atom is now called a anion
most ionic bonds _____ when dissolved in water.
dissociate (come apart)
the negative side of water is attracted to the cation and the positive side of water is attracted to the anion.
water molecules then surround the ions to form hydration spears
These free ions are critical to many physiological processes "electrolytes"
ionic bonds are based on _____
hydrogen bonds are based on ____
weak bond formed between 2 polar molecules based on opposite charges attracting
what holds the DNA structure together?
The process by which a mRNA molecule is made by making a reverse copy of a small sequence of DNA gene
The structure that can preform an action that counteracts the change.
A protein that catalyzes chemical reactions
the middleman in feedback loop. Receives info and decides what it needs to be done.
Examples of Positive Feedback Loop that occur in the body
- Breast Feeding
- Child Birth
The type of lipid that forms the cell membrane
Out of the 3 basic bonds which is the weakest?
- Hydrogen is the weakest
- Hydrogen, Ionic, Covalent
using water to break down a molecule
how many electron can shell # 2 hold?
1st shell can hold 2 electrons and every other shell can hold 8
Outermost electrons in an atom are called
What word do we use if something dissolves in water?
Hydrophobic - does not dissolve in water
why most feedback loops have antagonistic effects.
because is something goes up it must come down.
they work on either side of the effector to make sure that if something goes too high it is corrected or if something goes too low it is corrected
the type where 1 atom donates an electron to another and then opposites attract
what is the structure inside the cell that takes mRNA and makes it a polypeptide?
what determines how fast a cell/cube can absorb and secrete substances
- SA:V Ratio
- surface area to volume ratio
what is surface area to volume ratio
- surface divided by volume
how do you get surface area?
LxW then times the number of sides
2*4*6 you know 4*6 is bigger so that will be the four sides
2*4 will be the 2 sides
Add the 2 totals to get SA
the higher the SA:V the ____ absorption and secretion rate
water is formed / released
what is triglyceride
- 3 fats and glycerol
- fat = energy Glycerol = storage
- all single bonds
- packs down
- solidifies in blood vessels
2 differences between DNA and RNA
- RNA can leave the nucleus
- DNA has 2 strands RNA has 1
DNA uses T and RNA uses U
the molecule, other than fatty acids that both triglycerides and phospholipids have in their structure?
A normal atom has ___ charge
If an atom has more protons than electrons its charge would be ....
A fatty acid where carbons are all joined together
what is Made up of building blocks that all have an amino group (amino acid) and carboxyl group
a bond where atoms share electrons
messages sent from one structure (Feedback)
- Endocrine System
- Nervous System
Molecules that have same chemical formula but atoms are arranged different
1st law of thermodynamics
energy cannot be transferred or destroyed it can only be converted from 1 form to another
the process by which complex carbs (polysaccharides)are made
formed by the breakdown of fat and may have an effect on blood pH
The precursor molecule to all steroid hormones
Why is ATP so hard to make
trying to get to negatives together and opposite attracts
which biological molecules are hydrophobic
why on the pH scale is water neutral?
- when a solution has more hydrogen H+ than Hydroxide OH- ions =ACID
- when the solution has more Hydroxide H+ than Hydrogen OH- ions = BASE
- water has the same number of H+ and OH- it is neutral
why is water such a good solvent?
it is polar, and it can surround and conquer
polar dissolves polar and non-polar dissolves non-polar
TRUE OR FALSE
pH is the balance between
Hydrogen and Hydroxide
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