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what are 3 main characteristics of fungi?
- most multi-cellular (yeasts single-celled)
- make living as heterotrophs
how do fungi consume food?
secrete hydrolytic enzymes and absorb the breakdown products (don't break down food inside body)
Fungi are made of filaments called ___________, which form a network called ____________.
fungi cell walls contain?
Some cells in fungi have very large cells with many nuclei. this is called?
Some fungi have haustoria, what are they?
hyphae modified form penetrating hosts
Most nuclei in fungi are ________.
Some fungi cells have 2 dissimilar nuclei, this is called?
briefly describe the fungi sexual reproduction.
- 2 cells meet and fuse and continue growing
- the 2 diff nuclei may later fuse together to form an embryo
In fungi, the mycelium grows by?
adding hyphal length
How does fungi choose when to have sexual and asexual reproduction? why?
- if conditions good: asexual reproduction via haploid spores
- if conditions poor: sexual reproduction
- this is because if fungi is surviving well, an exact copy of itself would do well in that environment too
what is the specie of fungi that has never been seen to make spore-producing structures, reproduce by budding and are singe-celled?
how old is the common ancestor of fungi? how old are the oldest fossils?
- common ancestor about 1.5 billion years ago
- oldest fossils about 460 million years ago
what are the 5 modern phyla of fungi?
- mycorrhizal fungi
what are 2 characteristics about chytrids? how do their spores travel?
- most primitive fungi
- unicellular; some colonial with hyphae
- spores have a flagellum and travel on skin of frogs
where are zygomycetes found and what are they? what's an example?
- found in soil
- decaying organic matter
- ex. bread mold
what is a unique feature about zygomycetes?
coenocytic (giant cells with many nuclei)
when do zygomycetes have sexual and asexual reproductions?
- if food is present= asexual reproduction
- if food scarce= sexual reproduction
in the zygomycetes sexual reproduction, 2 cells fuse together to form?
what is the function of zygosporangium in zygomycetes?
resistant to freezing and drying
What are mycorrhizal fungi and what is its function?
- hyphae pushed into a plant root cell
- supply minerals to the roots
Ascomycetes have similar life cycles to zygomycetes except what 2 things?
- make spores in sacs in microscopic ascimake spores in macroscopic fruiting bodies called ascocarps
what is a unique feature about ascomycetes? where are they found?
- some are plant pathogens
- many found in lichens
Penicillium is the source of penicillian and the white crust on camembert cheese, what phyla does this belong too?
what organisms do basidiomycetes include?
includes mushrooms and shelf fungi
Basidiomycetes have a typical fungal life cycle except? (2)
- sexual spores produced in microscopic, club-shaped basidia sexual spores produced in macroscopic dikaryotic basidiocarp (ex.musroom)
where are basidia in the phylum basidiomycetes found?
found on gills on underside of mushroom
which phylum of fungi make "fairy rings" and are important plant decomposers?
what are the 4 main concepts in fungus ecology?
- they and bacteria are the primary decomposers
- have symbiosis, include mycorrhizae
- are pathogens (mostly to plants)
- some are useful to humans
what are lichens? Describe the symbiosis of lichens? (they're good colonizers, why?)
- lichens= association of photosynthetic sp. and a fungus
- cyanobacteria contributes "food" and may fix oxygen
- fungus provides a "home" and shade; holds water; absorbs minerals & air' may consume some algal cells
what is an example of how fungi are pathogens to plants? what is an example of fungi attacking animals?
- dutch elm disease (fungi destroy about 10-15% of harvest)
- ringworm and athlete's foot
what are some examples of how fungi are useful to humans?(3)
- source of antibiotics
- one species used as bakers and brewers' yeast (ascomycete)
what fungal phylum does yeast belong in?