VetMed Parasites

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VetMed Parasites
2014-02-14 17:14:40

Look at dem parasites
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  1. Trypanosoma cruzi (New world)
    • Vector: Kissing bug (salivarian or stercorarian)
    • Disease: Chagas, zoonotic
    • Signs: Flu-like (acute) megaesophasgus, megacolon, cardiac disease (chronic)
    • Affects: Dogs, man
  2. Trypanosoma cruzi (Old World)
    • Vector: Kissing bug
    • Disease: Chagana (cattle) African sleeping sickness (man), zoonotic
    • Affects: Cattle, man
  3. Trypanosoma equiperdum
    • Vector: None
    • Disease: Equine syphilis
    • Treatment: Culling
  4. Leishmania
    • Vector (IH): Sandflies
    • Disease: visceral, cutaneous or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis
    • Location: Mediterranean 
    • Signs: Attacks monocytes 
    • Notes: Recent outbreak among foxhounds in the US
  5. Giardia
    • Vector: Poop, resistant cysts
    • Signs: Greasy, pasty, grey diarrhea
    • Diagnosis: ZnSulfate solution, standard fecal destroys cysts
    • Treatment: Metronidozole, fenbendazole, fenbantel
  6. Tritrichomonas foetus (cattle)
    • Vector: None. Do not live outside of host
    • Signs: Abortions, infertility
    • Diagnosis: PCR, culture, direct smear
    • Treatment: Cull infected bulls, vaccine available
  7. Tritrichomonas foetus (feline)
    • Vector: Poop
    • Signs: Diarrhea
    • Diagnosis: PCR, culture, direct smear
  8. Eimeria
    • Vector: Poop, oocysts
    • Signs: Diarrhea, typically of young (in cattle 3 weeks to 6 months)
    • Diagnosis: History, fecal float
    • Disease: Host specific, not zoonotic. Herbivores and poultry
  9. Isospera suis
    • Vector: Oocysts in poop
    • Signs: Diarrhea in neonates 5-15 days 
    • Diagnosis: History, fecal float
  10. Toxoplasmosis gondii
    • Vector: IH is mice, under cooked pork; DH cat
    • Signs: Asymptomatic in people and cats
    • Disease: Congenital toxoplasmosis (man)
    • Diagnosis: Oocysts are shed for 10 days - 2 weeks until cat has a titer.
  11. Neospora caninum
    • Vector: Cattle (IH), dogs (DH) 
    • Transmission: Cattle eat dog poop, dogs eat cattle placenta and aborted fetuses 
    • Signs: Cattle get abortions, dogs have a congenital ascending paralysis
  12. Sarcocystis neurona
    • Vector: Opposum (DH), horses (IH) 
    • Disease: Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM)
    • Treatment: Ponazuril 
    • Note: Exposure rate is high, disease rate low
  13. Crytosporidium
    • Vector: Poop, cysts
    • Transmissions: Water supply, capable of autoinfection 
    • Signs: Yellow, watery diarrhea, typically in immunosupressed. In calves 1-2 weeks of age.
    • Treatment: Cattle: None, supportive therapy. Man: Itroconazole
  14. Cytauxzoon felis
    • Vector: Tick (dermacentor)
    • Signs: Death
    • Disease: Protozoa infiltrate RBCs, cause occlusions and thrombi. Reservoir is bobcats
  15. Fasciola hepatica
    • Vector: Snail (IH), leaves snail and encysts on vegetation, DH are cattle and sheep
    • Disease: Black disease in sheep caused by clostridium novii during fluke migration
    • Control: Remove snails
  16. Fasciolides magna
    • Vector: Elk/deer are DH. Snails are IH with encysted metacercaria on vegetation.
    • Disease: None in wild animals, fatal to sheep due to constant migration.
  17. Dicrocoelium dendriticum
    • Vector: First IH is the snail, second IH is the ant causing them to crawl up blades of grass.
    • Disease: Not a major pathogen
  18. Paragonimus
    • Vector: First IH is the snail, second IH the crayfish. 
    • Disease: Encysted pairs in the lungs, looks like a chain link fence
    • Signs: Respiratory distress, hemoptysis
  19. Nanophyetus slamoncola
    • Vector: Salmon (IH)
    • Disease: Carrier of neoricketsial disease causing "salmon poisoning".
    • Signs: High fever, large lymph nodes, death
    • Treatment: Doxycycline for neoricketsial. Could use praziquantel for fluke.
  20. Diphyllobothrium (Broad fish tapeworm)
    • Vector: Fish as IH
    • Disease: Usually non-pathogenic, affects dogs, man.
    • Treatment: Praziquantel
  21. Taenia saginata (Beef tapeworm)
    • Vector: IH is cattle, DH is man
    • Transmission: Oral to fecal for cattle, people get it from eating under cooked "measly beef" 
    • Treatment: Praziquantel
  22. Taenia Solium (pork tapeworm)
    • Vector: Man (DH or IH), pigs (IH)
    • Disease: Neurocystecercosis 
    • Transmission: Eating under cooked "measly pork," fecal to oral
    • Treatment: Praziquantel
  23. Taenia pisiformis
    • Vector: Dog (DH), rabbit (IH)
    • Treatment: Praziquantel
  24. Taenia taenia formis
    • Vector: Cat (DH), Mouse (IH)
    • Treatment: Praziquantel
  25. Multicepts serialis
    • Vector: Dog (DH), rabbit (IH)
    • Disease: Coernus in rabbit causes exopthalmus
    • Treatment: Praziquantel
  26. Multiceps multiceps
    • Vector: Dog (DH), sheep (IH)
    • Disease: Cause neurocystecerosis in sheep
    • Treatment: Praziquantel
  27. Echinococcus granulosum
    • Vector: Dogs (DH), sheep (standard IH), man/horses (IH)
    • Disease: Hydatid cysts in IH
    • Treatment: Praziquantel (DH), surgery (IH)
  28. Echinococcus multioccularis
    • Vector: Fox (DH), Mouse (standard IH), man (IH)
    • Disease: Nodular, metastatic cyst spread
    • Treatment: Praziquantel (DH), surgery (IH)
  29. Dipylidium caninum (flea tapeworm)
    • Vector: Flea/lice (IH); Dogs, cats, man (DH)
    • Transmission: Ingestion of fleas
    • Signs: Itchy butt
    • Treatment: Praziquantel
    • Notes: Pores on both sides of proglottid (hence the di-)
  30. Anoplocephala perfoliata
    • Vector: Mites (IH), horses (DH)
    • Disease: Colic
    • Treatment: Praziquantel
    • Notes: Like to hang out at the ileo-cecal valve
  31. Anoplocephola magna
    • Vector: Mites (IH), Horses (DH)
    • Disease: Non-pathogenic generally, lives in small intestine of horses
    • Treatment: Praziquantel
  32. Moniezia expansa
    Weird ass triangular eggs
  33. Moniezia benedeni
    Square eggs
  34. Spirocerca lupi
    • Vector: Beetles and crickets (IH), Dogs (DH)
    • Disease: Hypertrophic pulmonary osteopathy (HPO), aneurysms, increased long bone growth, cancer
    • Signs: Nodules in esophagus
  35. Physaloptera
    • Vector: Opossum and cats (DH) 
    • Signs: Vomiting in cats
    • Notes: Characteristic eggs
  36. Toxocara canis
    • Vector: Transplacental, transmammary, direct, or transport host (mice)
    • Signs: Coughing from pulmonary migration, mostly non-pathogenic, encysted in adults - resistant to antihelminthics.
    • Disease: Zoonotic, fecal to oral - VLM and OLM.
    • Notes: Females produce up to 200,000 eggs per day. Eggs are very resistant to desiccation, must use live flame or steam.
  37. Baylis ascaris
    • Vector: Raccoon, dogs (DH), man (IH)
    • Disease: NLM and OLM, very zoonotic
  38. Toxocara cat
    • Vector: Transport hosts, transmammary, direct
    • Disease: VLM (Rare)
    • Signs: Same as toxocara canis, although patent infections in adults and young
  39. Toxascaris leonina
    • Vector: Dogs and cats (DH), direct life cycle, transport hosts
    • Signs: Generally non-pathogenic, patent infection in young and adult. Non-migratory larvae
  40. Ancylostoma (Northern hookworm) Unciaria (Southern hookworm)
    • Vector: Dogs, direct life cycle w/ penetration of the skin, transmammary or ingestion of larvae
    • Signs: Peracute anemia of 10-12 day old puppies, with black, tarry stools.
    • Disease: Zoonotic, causes CLM, "creeper's interruption" or "plumber's itch"
    • Notes: Lays 200,000 eggs/day, eggs are very vulnerable to desiccation. Peracute condition is prior to PPP.
  41. Trichuris vulpis (whipworms)
    • Vector: Direct
    • Signs: Large bowel diarrhea (number one cause in the US)
    • Diagnosis: Difficult - intermittent shedders, 2,000 eggs/day in dilute diarrhea. Treat with fenbendazole (panacur)
  42. Dirofilaria immitis (Heartworm) (canine)
    • Vector: Mosquito (IH - take up L2-L3), Dogs (DH -adult and L1) PPP of 6-7 months. Life span of 5-7 years.
    • Signs: Coughing, fatigue, exercise intolerance
    • Disease: Wolbachia (intraparasitic bacteria) highly immunogenic causing intimal thickening of pulmonary arteries, right sided heart failure. 
    • Treatment: Pretreat with doxycycline for wolbachia, immiticide to kill adults. High worm burden requires surgery for vena cava syndrome. 
    • Notes: Resistant strains developing in the Mississippi delta.
  43. Dirofilaria immitis (Heartworm) (feline)
    • Vector: Same as dogs, Cats are not good DH. Life span of 1-2 years in worms. Likely ectopic in cats
    • Signs: Vomiting, sudden death, asthma.
    • Disease: Heartworm associated pulmonary disease (HARD) after 3-4 months after inoculation. 
    • Treatment: None. Steroids for asthma, surgery if you must.
  44. Aleurostrongylus, Filariodes, Capilaria (Lungworms)
    • Vector: Direct Life cycle of small animals
    • Notes: Eggs look like whipworm eggs (cats don't get whipworm)
  45. Dioctophyme renale (Giant kidney worm)
    • Vector: Dog (DH)
    • Disease: Right kidney invasion.
  46. Habronema
    • Vector: Flies (transport), Horses DH
    • Signs: Itchy skin, dermatitis - "summer sores"
  47. Parascaris equorum
    • Vector: Direct life cycle (no transmammary or transplacental)
    • Signs: Cold like symptoms in foals less than 2 years of age when traveling through the lungs - "summer colds" 
    • Notes: PPP is 75 days
  48. Strongylus vulgaris (Large strongyle)
    • Vector: Horses (DH)
    • Disease: Occlusion of cranial messenteric artery causing colic. Larvae migrate extensively. 
    • Notes: Long PPP
  49. Cyathostomes (Small strongyles)
    • Vector: Horses (DH) 
    • Signs: Generally non-pathogenic, minimally migratory.
    • Disease: Cyathostominosis - when weather turns in the spring, encysted larvae in the host emerge simultaneously
  50. Equine pin worms
    • Vector: Horses (DH)
    • Signs: "Rat tail", itchy butt
    • Diagnosis: Scotch tape prep
  51. Dictycaulus (Equine lungworm)
    • Vector: Donkeys (always), Horses (only around donkeys)
    • Notes: Horses generally don't develop patent infections.
  52. Ostertagia and Haemonchus
    • Vector: Cattle and goats (DH)
    • Signs: Severe anemia in goats (Haemonchus)
    • Disease: Hypobiosis can cause seasonal destruction of cells.
    •    Type 1: Normal life cycle
    •    Pre-type 2: Larvae enter the mucosa and go dormant in inclement weather.
    •    Type 2: Emergence from mucosa, destorying mucosa.
  53. Ascaris suum
    • Vector: Direct life cycle in pigs, no transmammary or transplacental.
    • Signs: "Milk spots" - pathogneumonic. Pulmonary migration can cause persistent pneumonia - "thumps"
    • Diagnosis: Fecal, females shed up to 1 mil eggs/day
  54. Oesophagostamum
    • Vector: Pigs (DH)
    • Disease: "Thin sow syndrome" from worms interfering with intestinal motility. 
    • Diagnosis: Fecal
  55. Trichuris suis (whipworm)
    • Vector: Pigs (DH)
    • Signs: Severe, bloody large bowel diarrhea; differential of swine dysentery. 
    • Treatment: Resistant to ivermectin