AN SC 420 Quiz 2

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ebacker
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AN SC 420 Quiz 2
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2014-02-13 01:36:04
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Quiz 2 study cards
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  1. What are the 3 distinguishing features of collagen?
    • Right-handed triple helical domain
    • Contains hydroxyproline
    • Glycine is every 3rd AA in helix
  2. What are the primary, secondary, and tertiary structures of collagen?
    • 1 alpha-chain
    • L-handed alpha-helix
    • R-handed super triple helix
  3. What is the AA pattern in the primary structure of collagen?
    Gly-X-Y
  4. What causes coiling in the secondary collagen structures?
    • Steric repulsion btwn Pro at X position and Hyp at Y
    • Hyp stabilizes helix
  5. What forms "ghosts" in collagen?
    Endomysium
  6. What type of collagen is in rat tail tendon?
    Type 1
  7. What is the structure of proteoglycans?
    • Protein backbone
    • Polypeptide branches
    • Glycosaminoglycan sub branches (leaves)
    • Recurring disaccharide units
  8. What are the 3 glycosaminoglycans in a collagen proteoglycan?
    • Hyaluronic acid
    • Dermatan sulfate
    • Chrondroitin sulfate
  9. What do network collagens form and what do they regulate?
    • Loose tetrameric structures; skeleton of basement mem collagen
    • Cell adhesion and migration
  10. What type(s) of collagen are in the epimysium?
    Type 1
  11. What type(s) of collagen are in the perimysium?
    Type 1, 3, 5
  12. What type(s) of collagen are in the endomysium?
    Type 1, 3, 4, 5
  13. What types of collagen are in cartilage?
    2, 9, 11
  14. What types of collagen are in skeletal muscle?
    1, 3, 4, 5
  15. What types of collagen are in basement mem?
    4, 6, 13, 15, 18, 19
  16. What types of collagen are in
    10
  17. What types of collagen are in tendon?
    1, 3, 5
  18. What types of collagen are in cornea?
    1, 5, 8
  19. What types of collagen are in skin?
    1, 3
  20. What is the process of cross linking in collagen?
    • Allysines bind to hydroxyallysines = aldimines
    • Aldimines reconfigure into keto-amines
    • Keto-amines re-arrange into cross-links = mature
  21. What are 2 mature (trivalent) cross-links?
    • Pyridinoline
    • Ehrlich's chromogen
  22. What are the 7 muscle shapes?
    • Fusiform
    • Parallel
    • Convergent
    • Unipennate
    • Bipennate
    • Multipennate
    • Circular
  23. Why is red meat red?
    • High in myoglobin
    • High in hemoglobin
    • Dense capillary bed
  24. Why is white meat white?
    Relies on incomplete oxidation of glycogen
  25. What are 2 factors affecting muscle physiological behaviour?
    • Speed - fast/slow
    • Fatigue - tonic/phasic
  26. What determines the speed of muscles?
    Myosin isoforms due to light chain differences
  27. What are the 3 muscle fiber types?
    • Type I - slow oxidative (red)
    • Type IIA - fast oxidative & glycolytic (intermediate)
    • Type IIB - fast glycolytic (white)
  28. What are the characteristics of slow muscle fibers (Type I)?
    • ^[myoglobin]
    • dense cap bed
    • most mitochondria & lipid
    • increased protein turnover
    • wide Z-line
    • smaller than fast
    • most sarcoplasm
    • longitudinal striations
    • resist fatigue
  29. What are the characteristics of fast oxidative/glycolytic muscle fibers (Type IIA)?
    • ^mitochondria
    • fast/repetitive motions
    • recruited after slow ox (Type I)
  30. What are the characteristics of fast glycolytic muscle fibers (Type IIB)?
    • large
    • well organized SR
    • few mitochondria
    • ^ATP & creatine phosphate
    • most glycogen
    • more connective tissue
  31. What are the different stains for key enzs?
    • NADH tetrazolium reductase (red)
    • Succinate dehydrogenase (red)
    • ATPase (white)
  32. What determines muscle fibre type?
    • Nerves
    • Low freq AP - red
    • High freq AP - white
  33. What does grain-feeding increase?
    Fat & cholesterol
  34. What does pasture-feeding increase/decrease?
    • Increases linolenic acid
    • Decreases linoleic acid
    • Increases poly-unsat FAs
    • Increases CLA
  35. How does grain feeding affect carcass quality?
    • White fat
    • Firmer when cooled
    • Increased shelf-stability
    • Reduced rate of oxidation/rancidity
  36. How does pasture feeding affect carcass quality?
    • Yellow fat
    • Softer when cooled
    • Decreased shelf-stability/increased oxidation & rancidity unless Vit E in feed
  37. What are the 3 flavour/tenderness evaluation techniques?
    • Consumer sensory panel
    • Trained sensory panel
    • Warner-Bratzler Shear force
  38. How does Vitamin D3 affect toughness?
    • Decreases toughness
    • Increases muscle Ca so increases calpain activity (proteolytic enz)
  39. How do implants affect toughness?
    • Increase toughness
    • Increased FE
    • Estrogen leads to cessation of bones
    • Leads to mature rather than youthful grade
  40. What are the affects of beta-adrenergic agonists?
    • Increase toughness
    • Increase gain
    • Increase FE
    • Increase carcass protein deposition
    • Reduce subcue fat
    • Most muscle hypertrophy
    • Does not affect marbling
  41. What is the dressing process for slaughtered cattle and pigs?
    • Head removed & inspected
    • Esophagus clipped
    • Feet or toenails removed
    • Tail removed (cattle)
    • Bunged
    • Carcass to gambrel
    • Hide removed (cattle)
    • Mamm gland/testes removed
    • Eviscerated
    • Split
    • Hot water washed
    • Weighed/refrigerated
  42. How are animals other than mature cattle, pig, bird, or goat "dressed"?
    • Remove head, skin, mamm glands
    • Remove feet at carpel/tarsal joints
    • Eviscerate
    • Split (except sheep, calf, rabbit)
  43. How are pigs & goats "dressed"?
    • Remove hair, toenails, mamm glands
    • Eviscerate
    • Split (pigs)
  44. What are the specified risk materials?
    • OTM
    • - skull
    • - trigeminal ganglia
    • - eyes
    • - tonsils
    • - spinal cord
    • - dorsal root ganglia

    • All ages
    • - Distal ileum + 200 cm proximal (Peyer's patches)
  45. How can UTM cattle be verified using dentition?
    • They will not have the 3rd permanent incisor
    • 15 month - will have full set of 8 temp teeth
  46. How is Trichinella spiralis controlled?
    • Cook pork at 58.5C for at least 10min
    • Freeze at -20C for at least 3d
  47. What is the life cycle of Trichinella spiralis?
    • Larvae encyst in pig muscle (red meat)
    • Human eats infected meat
    • Digestive juices break down larval capsule
    • Mature to adult, lay eggs
    • Eggs absorbed
    • Travel to muscle/heart/brain
    • Encyst in tissue
    • Cause issues (muscle-bad flu, heart-arrhythmia, brain-stroke)
  48. How long must SRM removal records be kept?
    • 10 years
    • Takes 10 years to get BSE-free status
  49. What lymph nodes are inspected PM in the skull?
    • Retropharyngeal (at back near nasal cavity)
    • Parotid (sides of head)
    • Submaxillary (under tongue)
  50. What lymph nodes are inspected PM in the lungs?
    • L bronchial
    • R bronchial
    • Mediastinal (middle of lung)
    • Open trachea & look for abnormalities
  51. Why are the Masseter (cheek) muscles sliced open and inspected?
    • Look for Cysticercus bovis (Taenia saginata in humans)
    • Forms visible cysts

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