Chapter 7

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Chapter 7
2014-02-20 17:48:18
Exploring Medical Language 8th edition Lafleur

Male Reproductive System
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  1. define

    testis (pl: testes)
    testicle  (pl: testicles)
    • primary male organs
    • paired, oval-shaped and enclosed in a sac called the scrotum
    • the testes produce spermatazoa (sperm cells) and the hormone testosterone
  2. define

    spermatozoon  (pl: spermatozoa)
    the microscopic male germ cell, which, when united with the ovum, produces a zygote (fertilized egg) that with subsequent development becomes an embryo
  3. define

    • the principal male sex hormone
    • its chief function is to stimulate the development of the male reproductive organs and secondary such characteristics such as facial hair
  4. define

    seminiferous tubules
    approximately 900 coiled tubes within the testes in which spermatogenesis occurs
  5. define

    • coiled duct atop each of the testes that provides for storage, transit, and maturation of spermatozoa
    • continuous with the vas deferens
  6. define

    vas deferens
    ductus deferens
    seminal duct
    • duct carrying the sperm from the epididymis to the urethra
    • the spermatic cord encloses each vas deferens with nerves, lymphatics, arteries, and veins
    • the urethra also connects with the urinary bladder and carries urine outside the body
    • a circular muscle constricts during intercourse to prevent urination
  7. define

    seminal vesicles
    • two main glands located at the base of the bladder that open into the vas deferens
    • the glands secrete a thick fluid which forms part of the semen
  8. define

    prostate gland

    *watch pronunciation, only 1 letter 'r'
    • encircles the upper end of the urethra
    • the prostate gland secretes a fluid that aids in the movement of the sperm and ejaculation
  9. define

    • sac suspended on both sides of and just behind the penis
    • the testes are enclosed in the scrotum
  10. define

    male organ of urination and copulation
  11. define

    glans penis
    enlarged tip on the end of the penis
  12. define

    • fold of skin covering the glans penis in uncircumcised males
    • foreskin of the penis
  13. define

    composed of sperm, seminal fluids, and other secretions
  14. define

    reproductive organs (male or female)
  15. define

    combining form

    glans penis
  16. combining form

  17. orch/o
    combining form

    testis, testicle
  18. prostat/o
    combining form

    prostate gland
  19. vas/o
    combining form

    vessel, duct
  20. vesicul/o
    combining form

    seminal vesicle
  21. andr/o
    combining form

  22. sperm/o
    combining form

    • sperm
    • spermatozoon
    • plural: spermatozoa
  23. -ism

    state of
  24. anorchism
    • state of absence of testis
    • unilateral or bilateral
  25. balanitis
    inflammation of the glans penis
  26. balanorrhea
    discharge from the glans penis
  27. benign prostatic hyperplasia
    • excessive development pertaining to the prostate gland
    • nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate gland
  28. cryptorchidism
    • state of hidden testes
    • during fetal development, testes are located in the abdominal area near the kidneys.
    • before birth they move down into the scrotal sac.
    • failure of the testes to descend from the abdominal cavity into the scrotum before birth results in cryptorchidism
    • also called undescended testicles
  29. epididymitis
    inflammation of an epididymis
  30. orchiepididymitis
    inflammation of the testis and epididymis
  31. orchitis
    inflammation of the testis or tescicle
  32. prostatitis
    inflammation of the prostate gland
  33. prostatocystitis
    inflammation of the prostate gland and the bladder
  34. prostatolith
    stone in the prostate gland
  35. prostatorrhea
    discharge from the prostate gland
  36. prostatovesiculitis
    inflammation of the prostate gland and seminal vesicles
  37. erectile disfynction
    • the inability of the male to attain or maintain an erection sufficient to perform intercourse
    • formerly called impotence
  38. hydrocele
    scrotal swelling caused by a collection of fluid
  39. phimosis
    • a tightness of the prepuce (foreskin) that prevents its retraction over the glans penis
    • it may be congenital or a result of balanitis
    • circumcision is the usual treatment
  40. priapism
    persistent abnormal erection of the penis accompanied by pain and tenderness
  41. prostate cancer
    cancer of the prostate gland, usually occurring later in life
  42. testicular cancer
    cancer of the testicle, usually occurring in men 15-35 years of age
  43. testicular torsion
    • twisting of the spermatic cord causing decreased blood flow to the testis
    • occurs most often during puberty and often presents with a sudden onset of severe testicular or scrotal pain
    • because of lack of blood flow to the testis, it is often considered a surgical emergency
  44. varicocele
    enlarged veins of the spermatic cord
  45. balanoplasty
    surgical repair of the glans penis
  46. epididymectomy
    excision of en epididymis
  47. orchidectomy

    bilateral orchidectomy is also called castration
    excision of the testis
  48. orchidopexy
    • surgical fixation of a testicle
    • performed to bring undescended testicle(s) into the scrotum
  49. orchidotomy
    incision into a testis
  50. orchioplasty
    surgical repair of a testis
  51. prostatectomy
    excision of the prostate gland
  52. prostatocystotomy
    incision into the prostate gland and bladder
  53. prostatocystotomy
    incision into the prostate gland to remove a stone
  54. prostatovesiculectomy
    excision of the prostate gland and seminal vesicles
  55. vasectomy
    • excision of a duct
    • (partial excision of the vas deferens bilaterally, resulting in male sterilization
  56. vasovasostomy
    • creation of artificial openings between ducts
    • the severed ends of the vas deferens are reconnected in an attempt to restore fertility in men who have had a vasectomy
  57. vesiculectomy
    excision of the seminal vesicle(s)
  58. circumcision
    surgical removal of the prepuce (foreskin)
  59. hydrocelectomy
    surgical removal of a hydrocele
  60. radical prostatectomy
    • excision of the prostate gland with its capsule, seminal vesicles, vas deferens, and sometimes pelvic lymph nodes
    • performed by a retropubic or perineal approach, or laparoscopically
    • used to treat prostate cancer
  61. suprapubic prostatectomy
    suprapubic transvesical prostatectomy
    • excision of the prostate gland through an abdominal incision made above the pubic bone and through an incision in the bladder
    • used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer
  62. transurethral incision of the prostate gland
    • a surgical procedure that widens the urethra by making a few small incisions in the bladder neck and the prostate gland
    • no prostate tissue is removed
    • TUIP may be used instead of TURP when the prostate gland is less enlarged
  63. transurethral microwave thermotherapy
    a treatment that eliminates excess tissue present in benign prostatic hyperplasia by using heat generated by microwave
  64. transurethral resection of the prostate gland
    • surgical removal of pieces of the prostate gland tissue by using a retroscope inserted through the urethra
    • the capsule is left intact
    • usually performed when the enlarged prostate gland interferes with urination
  65. transrectal ultrasound
    • an ultrasound procedure used to diagnose prostate cancer
    • sound waves are sent and received by a transducer in the form of a probe that is placed into the rectum
    • the sound waves are transformed into an image of the prostate gland
  66. prostate-specific antigen
    • a blood test that measures the level of prostate-specific antigen in the blood
    • elevated test results may indicate the presence of prostate cancer or excess prostate tissue, as found in benign prostatic hyperplasia
  67. semen analysis
    sperm count
    sperm test
    • microscopic observation of ejaculated semen revealing the size, structure, and movement of sperm
    • used to evaluate male infertility and determine the effectiveness of a vasectomy
  68. digital rectal examination
    a physical examination in which the physician inserts a finger into the rectum and feels for the size and shape of the prostate gland through the rectal wall
  69. andropathy
    • disease of the male
    • specific to the male, such as testitis
  70. aspermia
    condition of being without sperm (or semen or ejaculation)
  71. oligospermia
    • condition of scanty sperm (in the semen)
    • may contribute to infertility
  72. spermatolysis
    dissolution (destruction) of sperm
  73. acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
    acquired immune deficiency syndrome
    • a disease that affects the body's immune system
    • transmitted by exchange of body fluid during the sexual act, reuse of contaminated needles, or receiving contaminated blood transfusions
  74. artificial insemination
    introduction of semen into the vagina by artificial means
  75. azoospermia
    lack of live sperm in the semen
  76. chlamydia
    • a sexually transmitted disease
    • sometimes referred to as a silent STD because many people are not aware they have the disease
    • symptoms that occur when the disease become serious are painful urination and discharge from the penis in men and genital itching, vaginal discharge, and bleeding between menstrual periods in women
    • the causative agent is C. trachomatis
  77. coitus
    sexual intercourse between male and female
  78. condom
    cover for the penis worn during coitus to prevent conception and the spread of sexually transmitted disease
  79. ejaculation
    ejection of semen from the male urethra
  80. genital herpes
    • sexually transmitted disease caused by Herpesvirus hominis type 2
    • (also called herpes simples virus)
  81. gonads
    • male and female sex glands
    • male: testicles
    • female: ovaries
  82. gonorrhea
    contagious, inflammatory sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacterial organism that affects the mucous membranes of the genitourinary system
  83. heterosexual
    person who is attracted to a member of the opposite sex
  84. homosexual
    person who is attracted to a member of the same sex
  85. human immunodeficiency virus
    • a type of retrovirus that causes AiDS
    • HIV infects T-helper cells of the immune system allowing for opportunistic infections such as candidiases, Pneumocystitis jiroveci pneumonia, tuberculosis, and Kaposi sarcoma
  86. human papillomavirus
    venereal warts
    a prevalent sexually transmitted disease causing benign or cancerous growths in male and female genitals
  87. infertility
    reduced or absent ability to produce offspring
  88. orgasm
    climax of sexual stimulation
  89. puberty
    period when secondary sex characteristics develop and the ability to reproduce sexually begins
  90. sexually transmitted disease (STD)
    venereal disease
    sexually transmitted infection (STI)
    diseases, such as syphilis, gonorrhea, and genital herpes, transmitted during sexual contact
  91. sterilization
    process that renders an individual unable to produce offspring
  92. syphilis
    • chronic infection caused by the bacterium Trpeonema pallidum, which usually is transmitted by sexual contact
    • may be acquired in utero
    • (less often) contracted through direct contact with infected tissue
    • if untreated, the infection usually progresses through three clinical stages with a latent period
    • the initial local infection quickly becomes systemic with widespread dissemination of the bacterium
  93. trichomoniasis
    • a sexually transmitted disease caused by a one-cell organism Trichomonas
    • it infects the genitourinary tract
    • men may be asymptomatic or may develop urethritis, an enlarged prostate gland, or epididymitis
    • women have vaginal itching, dysuria, and vaginal or urethral discharge