BCH 361 Exam 1- ch.1

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djwon1
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261822
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BCH 361 Exam 1- ch.1
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2014-02-13 14:49:34
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Ch. 1
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  1. Living organisms are classified in to three
    domains:
    bacteria

    archaea (extremophiles)

    eukarya
  2. 4 examples of Eukaryotes
    Animals, plants, fungi, protista
  3. Characteristics of Eukaryotes
    • Presence of organelles: mitochondria, ribosome, chloroplast. 
    • Allows ‘compartmentalization’
    • Found in single (protista) and multicellular organisms
  4. Functional groups
  5. Proteins are composed of ___ and their functions are ___.
    • amino acids
    • enzymes, structure
  6. Carbohydrates are composed of ___ and their functions are ___.
    • sugars
    • Energy, structure
  7. Fats/Lipids are composed of ___ and their functions are ____.
    • hydrocarbons, some contain polar groups
    • Energy, structure
  8. RNA/DNA are composed of ___ and their functions are ___.
    • nucleotides
    • Genetic Information
  9. Amino Acids make ___ and ___.
    • peptides
    • proteins
  10. Nucleotides are composed of:
    • a nitrogenous base
    • ribose or deoxyribose sugar ring
    • phosphate group
  11. Purines are __ and have __ ring(s).
    • A,G
    • 2
  12. Pyrimidines are __ and have __ ring(s).
    • C,T,U
    • 1
  13. 3 types of RNAs.
    • mRNA
    • tRNA
    • rRNA
  14. Nucleophilic substitution
  15. Nucleophilic substitution
  16. isomerization
  17. elimination
  18. addition
  19. hydrolysis
  20. Oxidation occurs when
    a molecule loses two hydrogens and/or gains an oxygen
  21. Reduction occurs when
    a molecule gains two hydrogens and/or loses an oxygen.
  22. oxidation
  23. reduction
  24. not reduction but addition (add 2H and 1O)
  25. anabolic and catabolic pathways
    anabolic - large complex molecules are synthesized from smaller molecules, energy from catabolic pathway

    catabolic- large complex molecules are degraded into simpler products.  A portion of the energy produced drive anabolic reactions.

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