Intro to Oceanography Mid Term

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Intro to Oceanography Mid Term
2014-02-18 15:07:57
Mid Term

Intro to Oceanography Mid Term
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  1. Base unit of volume in metri system
  2. Chronometer
    –Time piece like device used to determine longitude
  3. Deepest Part of Ocean
    2012: Marianas Trench, 10,898 m
  4. First Circumnavigation
    Ferdinand Magellan
  5. Well substantiated Hypothesis
  6. Types of Coral Reefs
    Fringing, Barrier, and Atoll
  7. Nebular Cloud
    •Cloud of mostly hydrogen and helium revolves and its center.

    •Sun is formed when magnetic fields and gravity work to concentrate particles.–Sun diameter may have equaled diameter of planetary system.

    •Sun contracted leaving planetary material behind.
  8. Miller and Urey
    created an assortment of organic molecules and amino acids from inorganic compounds.

    –Did not create life.

    –Early atmospheric components may have been different.
  9. Layers of Earth
    Litho, Atheno, Meso, and Core
  10. Sediment dominated by quartz
    Lithogenous sediment
  11. Mantle Plumes or Hot Spots
    Subduction zones
  12. Reason abyssal planes look red
  13. Reason life started in ocean
    Protection from UV radiation
  14. Lithosphere floats on
  15. Two main types of marine sediment
    Biogenous Sediment, Lithogenous
  16. Silica based autotrophs
  17. Divisions of pelagic environments
    Epipellagic, Misopellagic, Bathypellagic, Abyssal Pelagic
  18. Mineral that aligns poles
  19. type of boundary is one where the two plates slide against each other in a sideways motion.
    Transform Boundaries
  20. Depth where calcite dissolves
    Calcite condensation depth
  21. The origin of lithogenous sediment
    Originates on the continents or islands from erosion, volcanic eruptions, or blown dust.
  22. Bathymetry
    The study of oceanic features
  23. Lighted part of the ocean
    Photic zone
  24. 3 marine provinces
    • •Continental margins
    • –Shallow-water areas close to shore

    • •Deep-ocean basins
    • –Deep-water areas farther from land

    • •Mid-ocean ridge
    • –Submarine mountain range
  25. Underwater avalanches mixed with rocks and other debris.
    Turbidity Currents
  26. Shallower than an ocean
  27. An asteroid colliding with proto earth
    Led to the formation of the moon
  28. Combination of all continents
  29. Father of continental drift theory
    Alfred Wegener
  30. Most common ocean sediment
    calcareous ooze
  31. Which of the following are techniques are commonly used to map the ocean floor in today's age of technology?

    Echo sounders
  32. •Macroscopic meteor debris.

    •Microscopic iron-nickel and silicate spherules (small globular masses).


    –Space dust

    •Overall, insignificant proportion of marine sediments.
    Cosmogenous Marine Sediments
  33. Fist Pacific navigatiors
  34. •Release of internal heat liquefied Earth’s surface.

    •Elements began to segregate based on density
    –Density Stratification

    •High density materials (Fe and Ni) settled in the core.

    •Less dense materials formed concentric spheres around the core.
    Density Stratification
  35. Oceanic crust is made of
  36. Two types of continental margins
    Passive and active
  37. First to make oceanic recordings
    James Cook
  38. Submarine Canyons
    •Narrow, deep, v-shaped in profile.•Steep to overhanging walls.

    •Extend to base of continental slope, 3500 meters (11,500 feet) below sea level.

    •Carved by turbidity currents.
  39. How long will the oil from the coast of water last?
    37 days
  40. Primary elements in Cosmogenous sediments?
  41. Earths chemical layers
    Crust, mantle, core
  42. Two animals used to support
  43. Happens every 250,000 years
    Polar shift
  44. How many mass extinctions have there been