Chapter 10 Microbiology

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Anonymous
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26184
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Chapter 10 Microbiology
Updated:
2010-07-09 16:45:11
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MIcrobial Growth
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Controlling MIcrobial Growth in the Body: Antimicrobial Drugs
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  1. Antibiotics
    Naturally produced chemical compounds by some microbes that kill/ inhibit growth of other types of microbes.
  2. Common Antibiotic producing microbes
    • Molds
    • Bacteria (Actinomyces) --> Bacillus, Streptomyces (filamentous)
  3. Antibiotics that inhibit cell wall synthesis
    • Penicillins
    • Cephalosporins
    • Vancomycin
    • Bacitracin
    • Isoniazid
    • Ethambutol
  4. Penecillins
    • (Ampicillin, methicillin, amoxycillin)- Broad Spectrum
    • Natural penicillins (narrow spectrum against GM +)

    Have beta lactam ring
  5. Cephalosporins
    • INhibit cell wall synthesis
    • Broad spectrum, against GM+. GM-
  6. Vancomycin
    • Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
    • Used if drug resistance is shown with beta lactams (ex- MERSA) used for life threatening illness
  7. Bacitracin
    • Inhibits cell wall synthesis
    • Against GM+, narrow spectrum
    • Topical, over the counter, minor skin infections
  8. Isoniazid and ethambutol
    • Inhibition of cell wall snthesis
    • Against microbacteria, TB, antituberculer drugs
  9. Antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis
    • Aminoglycosides
    • Tetracyclines
    • Chloramphenicol
    • Macrolides
  10. Aminoglycosides
    Inhibit protein synthesis
  11. Tetracyclines
    • Broad spectrum
    • Inhibit protein synthesis
  12. Chlorampheniol
    Inhibit protein synthesis; toxic to kidneys
  13. Macrolides (Erythromycin)
    • Inhibits protein synthesis
    • Treats ear infections
  14. Antibiotics that disrupt the cytoplasmic membrane
    • Polymyxins
    • (polyenes are antifungal)
  15. Polymyxins
    • Disrupt the cytoplasmic membrane
    • Against GM- bacteria
  16. Antibiotics that inhibit the general metabolic pathway
    • Sulfonamides
    • Trimethoprim

    • Treat infectiosn caused by Beta Lactam resistant strains of S. Aureus
    • Braod spectrum
    • Treat UTI
    • Best if used together
  17. PABA
    • Para amino benzoic acid
    • Is converted to dihydrofolic acid by enzymes
    • Sulfonamide interacts with these enzymes and synthesis is inhibited
  18. Inhibit formation of purine/ prymidine precursors
    • Sulfonamides
    • Trimethoprims
  19. Antibiotics that inhibit DNA or RNA synthesis
    • Actinomycin
    • Nucleotide
    • analogs
    • Quinolones
    • Rifampin
  20. Quinolones
    • Ex- ciprofloxin
    • Broad spectrum, treat UTI
    • DNA gyrase activity is inhibited and supercoiled DNA can't be unwound
  21. Rifampin
    • Inhibits transcription process (inhibits DNA synthesis)
    • Antitibuerculer drug
  22. Narrow spectrum antibiotics
    • Effective against few types of bacteria
    • Ex- natural peniillum (GM+)
    • Isohiazid and ethambuton- antimycobacterial drug
  23. 3 ways bacteria acquire drug resistance genes
    • 1. Transposition of complex transposon from horizontal gene granswer by transformation, transduction, conjugation
    • 2. Plasmid
    • 3. Part of chromosome
  24. Superbugs
    • Multidrug resistant microbe
    • Ex- MRSA, mycobacterium TB, Plasmodium, Pseudomonas
  25. 5 Mechanisms of Drug REsistance
    • 1. Destroying the drug
    • 2. Preventing entry of drug into cell
    • 3. Change target site for the drug
    • 4. Using alternative metabolic pathway
    • 5. Efluxing the drug out of the cell
  26. Destroying the drug
    Resistant to Beta lactams (penicillins by secretion of Beta lactamease enzymes that destroys Beta lactam ring part of antibiotic )
  27. Preventing entry of drug into cell
    Tetracycline and ampicillin resistance
  28. Change in target site
    • Resistance to erythromycin (prevents protein sythesis)
    • Sulfonamides (inhibit synthesis of PABA)
  29. Chaning/ using alternative metabolic pathway
    Resistance to sulfoamia and Trimethoprim
  30. Efluxing the drug out of the cell
    Resistance to tetracyclines
  31. How to prevent antibiotic resistance
    • 1. Take full course of antibiotics
    • 2. Only use antibiotics when needed
    • 3. Use syngergistic drugs
    • 4. Take antibiotics at regular intervals to maintain a specific concentration of antibiotics in the body

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