Measurements and Calculation
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Quantitative observation
 Measurement
 Comparison based on an accepted scale
 Contain a number AND a unit

Scientific Notation
 Technique used to express very large or very small numbers
 Based on powers of 10
ex 3.6 x10e4


Centi (Symbols, value, SN)

Milli (Symbol, value, SN)

When do you use 10e0?
When the number in question already has only 1 digit left to the decimal
7.31 > 7.31x10e0

1 inch equals
2.54cm (exactly)

Volume
Amount of threedimensional space
SI unit = m^{3}

Volume of gas and liquid are commonly measured in what unit?
mL

What does 1mL equal?
1cm^{3
}1mL = 10^{3}L = 0.001L

Mass
Amount of matter present
SI unit=kg
1kg = 10^{3g }= 10000g

1kg = how many lbs?
1kg = 2.2046lbs

1lb = how many grams?
453.59grams

Uncertainty in Measurement
A measurement always has some uncertainty

Significant Figures
 Used to indicate the uncertainty of a measurement
 Measurements are report with one(last) uncertain digit
 + or  1

Exact numbers
 Numbers known with certainty
 Have unlimited number of SFs
 1min=60 seconds
 Number of people in a room

Multiplying and dividing with SFs
 Result has the same number of SFs as the measurement with the smallest number of SFs
 Count SFs and round off to the correct SF

Adding and Subtracting SFs
You take the largest AU (uncertainty) and apply that to the answer


Kelvin to Celsius conversion equation
T_{c} = T_{k}  273.15

Ferinheight to Celsius conversion equation
T_{c }= (TF  32.00)/1.80

Celsius to Ferinheight equation
T_{F} = 1.80(T_{c}) +32.00

Celsius to Kelvin equation
T_{K}= T_{C} + 273.15

When converting how do you count SFs
Report converted temp to the same amount of uncertainty as the original term

Density
 A property of matter representing the mass per unit vol
 A conversion factor between mass and volume
Density = Mass/Volume

SI units for density (solid, liquid, gas)
 Solids  g/cm^{3}
 Liquids  g/mL
 Gasses g/L