Pathology: Cell Pathology

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mandelyn
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261844
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Pathology: Cell Pathology
Updated:
2014-02-13 16:46:09
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UCMT Pathology
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Cell Pathology chapter flashcards
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  1. Life and death exists at the _________ level.
    Cellular
  2. How can massage therapy influence the health of the cell?
    Massage increases blood flow to cells which brings oxygen and nutrients, and takes away wastes.
  3. DEFINE: cells
    Basic unit of life
  4. Every disease happens at ________ level.
    Cellular
  5. DEFINE: cellular injury
    Anything that puts stress on a cell leads to injury
  6. What are the common mechanisms of cell injury?
    • 1. Decreased ATP production- not enough energy
    • 2. Increased free radical production- more are produced than the cell can handle
    • 3. A buildup of too much calcium within the cell
    • 4. Loss of cell membrane integrity- tears or holes in the cell membrane
  7. What are free radicals?
    Free radicals are molecules that lose an electron so they steal from other molecules.
  8. What are the causes of cell injury?
    • Lack of oxygen
    • Physical agents
    • Infectious agents
    • Immunologic reactions
    • Genetic derangements
    • Nutritional imbalances
    • Aging
    • Hypoxia
    • Ischemia
  9. A lack of oxygen causes:
    Decreased ATP production
  10. Examples of physical agents are:
    • Trauma
    • Temp. extremes
    • Radiation
    • Etc.
  11. Examples of infectious agents are:
    • Viruses
    • Bacteria
    • Tape Worms
    • Fungi
    • Etc.
  12. Examples of genetic derangements are:
    • Gene defects
    • Chromosome damage
    • DNA malfunctions
  13. Some examples of nutritional imbalances are:
    • Too much/ too little of nutrients
    • Obesity/anorexia
  14. Aging _______________ and can ________ some things up.
    Always occurs, speed
  15. DEFINE: hypoxia
    Lack of oxygen
  16. DEFINE: ischemia
    lack of blood flow
  17. What happens to a cell that is starved for blood?
    • Decreased blood flow and oxygen delivery
    • No oxygen=no ATP production
    • No ATP=malfunction of plasma membrane=disruption of ion concentrations within cell
    • Accumulation of ions=excess water enters cell
    • Organelles swell and malfunction
    • Ribosomes don't produce proteins so cell uses other energy sources
    • Acidic by-products accumulate and damage nuclear DNA
    • Cell membrane breaks
    • Cell death occurs
  18. DEFINE: autoimmune disorder
    A disease that causes the body to attack itself
  19. What are the causes of free radical production?
    • Normal cellular metabolism
    • Radiant energy
    • Metabolism of exogenous chemicals
  20. Discuss normal cellular metabolism of free radicals:
    • Catabolism of nutrients (break down of nutrients and production of energy)
    • Body has antioxidants to deal with normal production
  21. Discuss radiant energy of free radicals:
    • UV light
    • X-rays
    • Radiation
    • Dangerous in excess
  22. Discuss metabolism of exogenous chemicals of free radicals:
    • Smoking
    • Air pollution
    • Pesticides
    • Dangerous in excess
  23. How do free radicals injure cells?
    • Lipid breakdown- breakdown and damage cell membrane
    • DNA- break up DNA
    • Proteins- change shape of proteins and enzymes which alters their functions
  24. Cells ________ to stressors in their environment.
    adapt
  25. DEFINE: physiologic adaptations
    response of cells to normal stimuli
  26. DEFINE: pathologic adaptations
    attempt to escape injury from stressor
  27. DEFINE: hyperplasia
    increase in number of cells in an organ or tissue
  28. DEFINE: hypertrophy
    Increase in the size of cells
  29. DEFINE: atrophy
    Reduction in size of cell
  30. DEFINE: metaplasia
    • One adult cell type replaces another adult cell type
    • It is reversible
  31. DEFINE: dysplasia
    • Change in cell size, shape, or organization of components of cell
    • It is irreversible (permanent)
  32. DEFINE: necrosis
    • Unexpected cell death
    • Progressive enzymatic digestion of a cell
  33. DEFINE: apoptosis
    • Programmed cellular death or deletion
    • Cells have natural life span and then they die

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