Pathology: Cell Pathology
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Life and death exists at the _________ level.
How can massage therapy influence the health of the cell?
Massage increases blood flow to cells which brings oxygen and nutrients, and takes away wastes.
Basic unit of life
Every disease happens at ________ level.
DEFINE: cellular injury
Anything that puts stress on a cell leads to injury
What are the common mechanisms of cell injury?
- 1. Decreased ATP production- not enough energy
- 2. Increased free radical production- more are produced than the cell can handle
- 3. A buildup of too much calcium within the cell
- 4. Loss of cell membrane integrity- tears or holes in the cell membrane
What are free radicals?
Free radicals are molecules that lose an electron so they steal from other molecules.
What are the causes of cell injury?
- Lack of oxygen
- Physical agents
- Infectious agents
- Immunologic reactions
- Genetic derangements
- Nutritional imbalances
A lack of oxygen causes:
Decreased ATP production
Examples of physical agents are:
- Temp. extremes
Examples of infectious agents are:
- Tape Worms
Examples of genetic derangements are:
- Gene defects
- Chromosome damage
- DNA malfunctions
Some examples of nutritional imbalances are:
- Too much/ too little of nutrients
Aging _______________ and can ________ some things up.
Always occurs, speed
Lack of oxygen
lack of blood flow
What happens to a cell that is starved for blood?
- Decreased blood flow and oxygen delivery
- No oxygen=no ATP production
- No ATP=malfunction of plasma membrane=disruption of ion concentrations within cell
- Accumulation of ions=excess water enters cell
- Organelles swell and malfunction
- Ribosomes don't produce proteins so cell uses other energy sources
- Acidic by-products accumulate and damage nuclear DNA
- Cell membrane breaks
- Cell death occurs
DEFINE: autoimmune disorder
A disease that causes the body to attack itself
What are the causes of free radical production?
- Normal cellular metabolism
- Radiant energy
- Metabolism of exogenous chemicals
Discuss normal cellular metabolism of free radicals:
- Catabolism of nutrients (break down of nutrients and production of energy)
- Body has antioxidants to deal with normal production
Discuss radiant energy of free radicals:
- UV light
- Dangerous in excess
Discuss metabolism of exogenous chemicals of free radicals:
- Air pollution
- Dangerous in excess
How do free radicals injure cells?
- Lipid breakdown- breakdown and damage cell membrane
- DNA- break up DNA
- Proteins- change shape of proteins and enzymes which alters their functions
Cells ________ to stressors in their environment.
DEFINE: physiologic adaptations
response of cells to normal stimuli
DEFINE: pathologic adaptations
attempt to escape injury from stressor
increase in number of cells in an organ or tissue
Increase in the size of cells
Reduction in size of cell
- One adult cell type replaces another adult cell type
- It is reversible
- Change in cell size, shape, or organization of components of cell
- It is irreversible (permanent)
- Unexpected cell death
- Progressive enzymatic digestion of a cell
- Programmed cellular death or deletion
- Cells have natural life span and then they die
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