Pathology: Inflammation

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Pathology: Inflammation
2014-02-13 17:51:44
UCMT Pathology

Flashcards for inflammation chapter in pathology
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  1. Inflammation is the _________ for the healing process.
  2. The ultimate goal of inflammation is to bring to the invaded or injured area phagocytes and plasma proteins that can...
    • 1. destroy invaders
    • 2. remove debris
    • 3. prepare for healing and repair
  3. 5 classic signs and symptoms of inflammation:
    • Heat
    • Redness
    • Swelling
    • Pain
    • Loss of function
  4. If a client asks why the area massage is red, warm, and swollen what do you tell them?
    • Massage damages cells
    • Promotes vasodilation (increase blood flow)
    • Brings oxygen and nutrients, removes metabolic wastes
  5. What does vasoconstriction then vasodilation mean?
    There is a brief period after injury where vessels narrow or constrict.  The vessels then open up or dilate, which leads to an increased blood flow causing redness and warmth.  This brings phagocytes and plasma proteins to the area.
  6. DEFINE: increased vascular permeability
    • Vessels start to leak
    • Capillary pores open allowing phagocytes and plasma proteins to leave the blood and enter the inflamed tissue
    • This results in redness, warmth, and swelling at the site of inflammation
  7. DEFINE: stasis
    Blood flow slows
  8. DEFINE: margination
    Leukocytes, or white blood cells, begin to stick to the sides of the vessel wall.
  9. DEFINE: emigration
    The passage of leukocytes (white blood cells) through the vessel wall and their journey to site of injury
  10. DEFINE: chemotaxis
    Movement of cells in response to a chemical signal
  11. DEFINE: chemical gradient
    White blood cells follow the intensity of "SOS distress signals" or chemical gradient to the injured tissue
  12. DEFINE: phagocytosis
    • "Cellular eating"
    • The engulfment of foreign material and cellular debris
  13. What are the steps of phagocytosis?  Explain.
    • 1. Recognition and attachment: the phagocyte identifies invaders and then attaches to them.
    • 2. Engulfment: the material is drawn into the cell.
    • 3. Killing or degradation (breakdown) of ingested material: ingested material is chemically digested by lysosomes.
  14. DEFINE: leukocyte induced tissue injury
    Too many white blood cells in one area cause unintended injury to healthy tissue
  15. What are the different cells involved in inflammation?
    • Neutrophils
    • Monocytes and Macrophages
    • Lymphocytes
    • Eosinophils
  16. What are neutrophils?
    • White blood cells
    • Phagocytic, "cell eaters"
    • Most prominent in the first few hours of inflammation
  17. What are monocytes and macrophages?
    • White blood cells
    • Appear after 1-2 days after inflammation begins
    • Monocytes become macrophages
  18. What are lymphocytes?
    • White blood cells
    • Prominent in chronic inflammation and viral infections
  19. What are eosinophils?
    • White blood cells
    • Predominate in allergic reactions and parasitic infections
  20. What are the two outcomes of acute inflammation?
    • 1. Complete resolution
    • 2. Failed Resolution (scarring or fibrosis)
  21. Explain the steps of complete resolution:
    • 1. Vessels stop leaking
    • 2. Removal of excess fluid and proteins by lymphatic system
    • 3. Phagocytosis of apoptotic white blood cells and debris by macrophages
    • 4. Removal of macrophages
  22. DEFINE: failed resolution (scarring or fibrosis)
    • Occurs if there is too much tissue destruction.
    • Collagen is laid down and a scar is formed.
  23. DEFINE: abscess
    local collection of pus buried in tissue
  24. DEFINE: ulcer
    erosion or sloughing of necrotic tissue
  25. DEFINE: fistula
    an abnormal passage between organs or organ to surface
  26. What are some systemic effects of inflammation?
    Fever, malaise, anorexia, accelerated degeneration of skeletal muscle, hypotension, and alterations in the circulating leukocytes.