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What are gonium and pandorina.
Compare and contrast them.
they are chlorophyta
- they both have 4-32 cells
- Gonium: flate plate of exact cells; true colony
pandorina: has less space in their colony
What gives us a hint of specialization in that they are not the same size?
Pleodorina of Chlorophyta
not the same size; some reproduce; some dont
- definite cell specialization
- larger cells produced the daughters; contains cytoplasmic connections
In Derbesia, explain the sporophyte and gametophyte.
gametophyte: sporelike; spherical
Green algae can be used as a food source:
- Ulva: sea lettuce
- Chlorella: has most vitamins humans need except vitamin C
Green algae can be used as a source of beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A.
the motile unicell alga Dunaliella produces approx. 14% of its dry weight as beta-carotene. Some species are commercially grown in highly saline ponds or lakes for their beta-carotene
What are all the things green algae are used for?
What will they be used for?
- food source
- ancestral species
- source of beta-carotene
- space exploration
- extract metals from waste water
- produce biofuel
- produce hydrogen that could be used as fuel
Who did an experiment on it and what did he do?
one cell with a branching rootlike base (with a nucleus), a stalk,, and a cap
Worked with two species (med and cap) and their caps. When a piece of med stalk was grafted onto a cren base, the new cap that was regenerated was cren. And vice versa with med. In each case, the cap that formed resembled that of the base
What carotenoid do diatoms have?
fucoxanthin, giving the cell a golden- brown color
True or False:
Diatoms have only two shapes.
- they have all types of shapes, but the two basic shapes are
- - pennate (bilateral symmetry)
- - centric (radial symmetry); circular, triangular, square
What do diatoms resemble?
What do their cell walls have?
Despite their lack of __ or other locomotor organelles, many species of __ are __.
flagella/ pennate diatoms/ motile
What does diatom locomotion result from?
All motile diatoms seem to possess, along each shell, a fine groove called the __, which is basically what?
from a rigorously controlled secretion that occurs in response to a wide variety of physical and chemical stimuli
a pair of pores connected by a complex slit in the siliceous wall of hte diatom
Many nonmotile diatoms are __. The __ apparently evolved as a locomotor device by modification of the __, which secrete the substances that unite the nonmotile diatoms into filaments.
- attached to one another, with their shells arranged in long filaments
- apical pores
A diatom moves in response to what how?
Movement is __.
- what: external stimulus
- how: by initiating conractions in contractile bundles that lie adjacent to the raphe system, which move dehydrated crystalline bodies to pores where they form twisting fibrils and touch a surface, thus adhering to it--> move towards it
In diatoms, what is the result of asexual reproduction?
one of hte two daughter cells is ordinarily slightly smaller than the parent cell
What are the relevances of diatoms?
fish liver oils
amnesic shellfish poisoning
aquaculture has been affected by chaetoceros
True or False: Dinoflagellates are unicellular or colonial, or loosely filamentous.
True or false: All dinoflagellates are photosynthetic.
True or False: Dinoflagellates store fats and oils.
False: UNICELLULAR (no exceptions)
False: Some are photosynthetic; some colorless and heterotrophic
True: along with starch
What is a dinoflagellates' cell wall made out of?
cellulose plates located in vesicles to the inside of hte plasma membrane (not outside like other cell walls)--> Armored
Explain a dinoflagellate's mitosis.
nuclear envelope persists; doesn't disintegrate
chromosomes attach to it
channels of cytoplasm invade the nucleus
What do dinoflagellates cause?
Which toxins are released when the cells die?
Which toxins are released by living cells?
released when the cells die
released by living cells
Pfiesteria piscicida means __.
What causes its increase?
What are the two sugars that alternate to form the polysaccharide backbones of the bacterial cell wall?
What replaces cellulose?
What is outside the cyanobacterial cell wall?
gelatinous material (sheath/ matrix)
Which organisms have chl b?
Which organisms have chl c?
- brown algae
Which organisms have phycobilins?
found in cyanobacteria and red algae
Two body structures of brown algae?
branching filaments: The entire algae is a few centimeters in length; only a few species
expanded thallus: can be very large in size (Macrocystis can be 100' in length)
What carotenoid do brown algae have?
What stored food do they have?
laminarin (with B-1,6 and B-1,3 linkages) and mannitol
What keeps the brown algae cell wall from drying out?
__ is a polysaccharide with sulfur in it. It may have anti-tumor activty.
What carb is extracted from brown algae cell walls?
Human relevance for brown algae
- direct food source
- source of iodine
- livestock feed
What is the habitat of red algae?
Limited to __
largely marine, a few freshwater; tropical waters
Red algae also do what?
What is their body type?
precipitate calcium carbonate and become calcareous; important contributor to reefs
- 2 genera unicellular
- a few with an expanded thallus
- most are filamentous (either a signle branching fil or a central group of filaments (central strand) with numerous branches
True or False:
Red tide is caused by cyano.
How can cyano store food?
- cyanophycean starch (storage carb) not much different with glycogen
- nitrogen storing molecule in the cytopplasm
- may have aspartic acid
- can also store molecules in the form of fat
The heterocyst occurs in __ of some species and contain __ where there is __
cytoplasmic connection between hetero and neighboring veg. cell
Which species of cyanobacteria actually swims?
How much DNA does the cyanobacteria contain?
Explain the process.
What are the forms of reproduction a cyano experiences?
one molecule of DNA
duplicated--> attached to membrane--> cell increases in length--> formation of cell wall and membrane--> two new cells
binary fission/ exospores/ hormogonia/ fragmentation
Why are algae not classified with plants?
has to do with reproduction
- algae: 1) adults act as the gametes
- 2) unicellular gametangia produces the algae
- 3) multicellular gametangia produces the gametes
- - plants have a gametangia that has one layer of sterile cells
What are four things water blooms can?
deplete O2 in the water due to resp and decomposition--> fish kills
can clog intake filters of water treatment plants due to the gelatinous matrix aroundd the cells
can give drinking water an unpleasant taste and/or odor
can make swimming and boating unpleasant
Who releases alkaloids and why?
- among other plants, flowers do it for defense
- (theobromine: cocoa plant--> chocolate)
Cyanobacterial human relevances?
- water blooms
- rice paddies
- eaten directly
What two things do green algae have?
pyrenoids and orange-red spot
one subgroup __ may have been the ancestor of land plants.
What is the largest group of algae?
What is the benefit of a triphasic life cycle?
- ecause spermatia don't have flagella, the chances of getting in contact with trichodome is rare/ random
- - the sporophyte may not be as able to form; however, by producing more spores, it increases its chances of fusing and products of fertilization
Similarities of Cyanobacteria with Bacteria
- 1) Ribosomes are the same size
- 2) No cellulose in their cell wall; instead, they are made up of peptidoglycans
- Binary fission
Similarities of Cyanobacteria with Algae
- 1) Have specialized structures
- a. Heterocysts and akinetes
- Chlorophyll a , which no other bacteria but one, has
Structure of chlorophyll
Central core of magnesium held in a porphoyin ring with a phytol tail attached
Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Reproduction
- - Eukaryotic: mitosis, fragmentation, spores from mitosis
- - Prokaryotic: binary fission, fragmentation, spores by binary fission
Red Algae adapted alternation of generations for what reason
- - Increases the number and genetic diversity of the progeny resulting from each indivudal fertilization event, or zygote
- - Since there is no flagella and they can’t swim toward female gametes, these two multicellular generations are an adaptive response
Green Algae Forms of Reproduction:chlorophyceae
Chlorophyceae: phycoplast—daughter nuclei move toward one another as the nonpersistent mitotic spindle collapses; new microtubules (phycoplast) parallel to plane of cell division form to ensure that the cleavage furrow forms; nuclear envelope persists
Green Algae Forms of Reproduction: spindles, phragmoplast
- - Spindles may remain present until disrupted by forrow or cell plate, which grows outward
- - Phragmoplast: microtubules arranged perpendicular to the plane of cell division
Green Algae Forms of Reproduction:charophyeae
Charophyceae: asymmetrical flagellar root system of microtubules to provde anchorage for flagella; has a multilayered structure
Human relevance of red algae
- direct food source
- antibiotic properties
- anti-cancer activity