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1. What is the purpose of military formation flying? (B/1/1)
a. To provide the mutual support required to accomplish a given mission
b. Effectiveness of a formation mission is highly dependent on solid flight discipline
2. What are number 1 and number 2 responsibilities for formation radio procedures? (C/1/1)
- Number 1:
- a. Communicate for flight
- b. Keep flight on frequency
- c. Squawk for flight
- d. Maintain radio discipline
- Number 2:
- a. Monitors communications
- b. Responds to number 1
- c. Maintains radio discipline
3. What is radio discipline? (C/1/2)
Radio discipline is using the radio only when necessary. Radio priorities: safety of flight, mission accomplishment, flight management, in-flight checks, other.
4. What is the most important consideration when giving visual signals in formation? (D/1/1)
The signal must be seen.
6. You are in fingertip on the left side and number 1 dips his wing to the right. What do you do as number 2? (D/1/3)
Crossunder to number 1’s right wing
7. What is the signal for radio transmitter failure? (D/1/4)
Take the hand closest to the other aircraft, tap oxygen mask, then move hand up and down with palm towards the face.
8. How does number 1 signal for a fuel check? (D/1/5)
Make a drinking motion with a closed fist, thumb extended and touching the oxygen mask
9. How do you give the speed brake signal? (D/1/6)
Make a biting motion with the fingers and thumb of the hand
10. How does number 1 visually signal the completion of a Climb Check? (E/1/1)
With the “OBOGS OK” signal
11. Formation in-flight checks are normally performed in what position during VMC? (E/1/2)
12. What are the unique challenges to clearing in formation flight? (F/1/1)
- a. Attention is divided or focused on other flight members
- b. Close formations are less maneuverable
13. Which crew is responsible for keeping the formation within assigned airspace and accomplishing the mission profile? (F/2/1)
The formation leader
14. What are some ways that number 2 can help number 1 maintain area orientation and run the mission profile? (F/2/2)
- a. Be aggressive
- 1) Be in position
- 2) Accomplish maneuvers safely and on time
- b. Be ready to assume number 1
- 1) Stay aware of position
- 2) Stay aware of profile progress
15. The number 1 aircraft is maneuvering the formation through a steep banked, high-G turning maneuver when you observe another aircraft in your area that appears to be a hazard to the formation. What should you do? (G/1/1)
Immediately call “KNOCK-IT-OFF”
16. Your number 2 called “TERMINATE” in order to regain proper position. When can you normally resume maneuvering the flight? (G/2/1)
When number 2 reports “CALLSIGN, TWO'S IN”
17. When are the three times a formation aircraft with a malfunction should be offered number 1? (H/1/1)
- Should be offered number 1:
- a. When the emergency occurs
- b. On recovery when VFR
- c. On final with field in sight
18. True or false? If a formation has a midair collision, the aircraft should remain together as a formation for mutual support. (H/1/2)
- After a midair collision:
- a. Do not attempt to maintain formation
- b. Number 1 should coordinate for separate clearances and chase ships
- c. Both aircraft should accomplish controllability check
1. What is the reason for military formation flying?
To provide the mutual support required to accomplish a given mission
2. What does military formation flying build in the individual flight members?
- Formation flying builds
- a. confidence
- b. self-reliance
- c. self-discipline
- d. aggressiveness
3. Number 2 normally accomplishes radio frequency changes in what position when VMC?
4. What two ways can number 1 signal for a radio frequency change?
Visually or over the radio
5. What do the letters in HEFOE mean?
- a. H – Hydraulic
- b. E – Electrical
- c. F – Fuel
- d. O – Oxygen
- e. E – Engine
The Es are in alphabetical order.
6. Is number 1 required to give a gear down signal during a formation landing?
Yes. Number 1 must give the gear down signal. (The gear up signal is optional for formation wing takeoffs).
7. How do you perform a pitchout signal?
Hold hand closest to other aircraft up, index finger extended upward, and make rapid circular motions with the hand.
8. What is the hand signal for the number nine?
Hand held sideways with four fingers (not thumb) extended
9. How does number 1 signal to tighten or rejoin the formation?
By rocking the wings (slowly)
10. How does number 1 loosen the formation to the route position?
With a hand signal making a pushing motion towards number 2
11. What two factors impact the ability of crewmembers to clear in formation?
- a. Divided or focused attention on the other aircraft in the formation
- b. The lack of maneuverability in close formation
12. Which crew normally answers radio calls made to the flight for traffic?
The crew in the number 1 aircraft
13. How can being aggressive as number 2 help number 1 perform good area orientation and in-flight planning?
By not keeping number 1 waiting to begin the next maneuver
14. How do you signal “KNOCK-IT- OFF” if radio out?
A continuous wing rock
3. On takeoff roll, number 1 should set power to ______ torque. (B/2/2)
c. 85% - 95%
4. During a wing takeoff, if number 1 aborts after brake release, number 2 should ______. (B/2/3)
c. normally continue the takeoff
5. As number 1 of an interval takeoff, when the gear and flaps are retracted, maintain ______ KIASuntil number 2 is in position. (B/3/1)
6. As number 2 on an interval takeoff, delay brake release for ______ seconds after number 1 beginstakeoff roll. (B/3/2)
7. Maintain approximately ______ wingtip spacing in fingertip. (C/1/1)
d. 10 feet
8. Number 1 should initiate turns at a slow rate in order to “telegraph” to number 2 that a turn is starting.
9. Speed brakes are sometimes used in formation to control ______ and rate of descent. (C/1/3)
10. During a crossunder, it is permissible to pass slightly under the number 1 aircraft. (C/2/1)
11. A good reference to ensure proper nose-tail clearance is to have the canopy bow superimposed on the______. (C/2/2)
b. trailing edge of number 1’s elevator
12. The maximum bank angle for an echelon turn is approximately ______. (C/3/1)
13. As number 2 in an echelon turn, use ______ to correct fore and aft position. (C/3/2)
14. Route formation can be used to ______. (C/4/1)
- a. allow number 2 to check systems
- b. give time for number 2 to relax
- c. perform in-flight checks
- d. All of the above
15. During a turn away from number 2 in route formation, number 2 should maintain the same verticalreferences as ______. (C/4/2)
16. During normal operations, number 1 can direct a position change ______. (C/5/1)
a. with the formation in wings level route formation
17. Which of the following requires number 2 to breakout of formation? (C/6/1)
a. Unable to rejoin or remain in formation without crossing under or in front of number 1
c. Visual contact with number 1 is lost causing a loss of situational awareness
18. As number 1, if number 2 calls breakout and you do not have them in sight, you should ______.(C/6/2)
b. continue the current maneuver with the current power setting
1. As number 2 during taxi, accomplish checklist items ______.
b. only one item at a time with quick glances inside
2. As number 2 on a wing formation takeoff, maintain ______ position until gear and flaps are retracted.
c. stack level
3. For an interval takeoff, number 1 makes a normal takeoff and then accelerates to ______ KIAS.
4. One of the primary front cockpit references for the 30° lateral fingertip line is to superimpose ______.
a. number 1’s aft wingtip light on the center front edge of the engine exhaust stack opening
5. If you were out of position in all three axes of fingertip, the ______ correction you want to make is to close to the proper wingtip distance (10 feet).
6. As number 2, accomplish the crossunder from one side to the other side of number 1 by ______.
b. dipping your wing momentarily in the direction of the new position and then rolling wings level
7. As number 2, to maintain a level echelon turn, position yourself so the ______ bisects number 1’s fuselage. Additionally, you should see ______ over the aft edge of the wing.
c. horizon, most of number 1’s center canopy rail
8. In route formation, number 2 can cross to the opposite side of number 1 ______.
d. only when directed by number 1
9. As number 2 during a position change, you become the new number 1 when ______.
b. you acknowledge the position change with a head nod or radio call
10. If you break out of formation as number 2 and number 1 is not in sight, ______.
c. break away from number 1’s last known position or flight path
1. To maneuver in relation to another aircraft, you will control the placement and magnitude of the ______ and ______ vectors. (B/1/1)
d. lift; velocity
6. ______ pursuit increases aspect angle and closure, while ______ pursuit decreases aspect angle and closure. (B/1/6)
c. Lead; lag
7. The pitchout is a precision maneuver that requires a constant airspeed and altitude be maintained throughout the maneuver. (C/1/1)
8. The pitchout is the only method used to generate spacing prior to practicing a rejoin. (C/1/2)
9. Which of the following statements is true concerning number 2 responsibilities during a pitchout?(C/1/3)
a. Number 2 should keep track of number 1, clear, match number 1’s turn, and roll out behind andslightly below number 1.
10. Normal rejoin airspeed for the T-6A is ______KIAS unless otherwise briefed. (C/2/1)
11. Number 1’s responsibilities during a turning rejoin include all of the following EXCEPT ______.(C/2/2)
d. keeping number 2 slightly below the horizon
13. During a turning rejoin, you should plan to arrive in the route position ______. (C/2/4)
b. co-speed with number 1 and with no angle off
14. You can use all of the following to control closure during a rejoin EXCEPT ______. (C/2/5)
15. An overshoot is normally indicated when approaching route with ______. (C/2/6)
c. too much airspeed and/or too much angle off
16. If you don’t specify a side for number 2 to rejoin to during a straight-ahead rejoin, number 2 will ______. (C/3/1)
d. rejoin to the left side
17. In which of the following situations is a radio call required? (C/3/2)
c. To inform number 2 of a greater than 10 knot change in rejoin airspeed
18. When performing a straight-ahead rejoin as number 2, you should attempt to ______. (C/3/3)
c. stabilize in the route position
19. Which of the following statements concerning straight-ahead rejoins is true? (C/3/4)
a. You are on a collision course if number 1 stays in a constant position in the windscreen.
20. What should you do to ensure lateral separation during an overshoot from a straight-ahead rejoin? (C/3/5)
a. Turn away from number 1 slightly as you overshoot.
21. The fighting wing position is anywhere within a 30 to 45° cone at a distance of ______ - ______ feet aft of number 1. (D/1/1)
c. 500; 1000
22. How does number 1 direct the flight to go close trail? (E/1/1)
d. Use radio call or places open hand on back of helmet.
23. Which of the following maneuvers is allowed in close trail? (E/1/2)
a. Lazy eight maneuvers
24. What are the bank limits in close trail? (E/1/3)
25. In the close trail position, you should be ______. (E/1/4)
b. 1-2 ship lengths behind number 1 and slightly below number 1
26. In formation, the NORDO aircraft should normally be given or retain the ______ position. (F/1/1)
b. number 2
27. Lost wingman procedures include all but which of the following items? (F/2/1)
a. Attempting to rejoin
28. You are in a wings-level descent when you lose sight of number 1. What should you do? (F/2/2)
a. Turn away from number 1 using 15° of bank for 15 seconds, and then resume course.
29. During one type of lost wingman procedure, number 1 must roll out to help ensure separation. Which situation requires this action? (F/2/3)
b. Turning into number 2
30. Practice lost wingman procedures may be initiated by either number 1 or number 2. (F/2/4)
31. You have lost sight of the other aircraft in your formation and called “blind.” If there is no timely response to your call, you should ______. (F/3/1)
c. maneuver away from the other aircraft’s last known position
32. Which of the following considerations is true concerning formation penetrations? (G/1/1)
d. The weather must be at or above a 500 foot ceiling with visibility at 1 1/2 miles or greater.
33. Number 1 will advance the power to ______ to perform a formation missed approach. (G/1/2)
34. When going to initial, all turns in the pattern ______. (G/2/1)
a. are away from number 2 using echelon references
35. During a traffic pattern and landing from the break, number 1 should ______. (G/2/2)
b. land on the downwind side
2. Where is the nose of the aircraft pointing if you are in lag pursuit?
d. Behind number 1
3. Lead pursuit will ______ aspect angle and ______ closure.
b. increase; increase
4. In fingertip, you are at a ______ aspect angle from number 1 with ______ angle off.
c. 60; 0
5. How will number 1 signal for a left turning rejoin?
a. Rock wings and roll out in a 30° bank left turn.
6. What are the normal turning rejoin airspeed and bank angle for the T-6A?
c. 180 KIAS and 30°
8. When accomplishing either a turning or straight ahead rejoin, number 2 should ______.
a. stabilize in route prior to moving in to fingertip
9. Which of the following limitations does NOT apply to close trail?
a. Minimum of MAX power maintained by number 1
10. When overshooting from a turning rejoin, you should ______.
d. not climb higher than number 1
11. When recovering with a NORDO number 2 to a straight-in or instrument approach, the aircraft with the operable radio will lead the flight through the approach until ______.
d. the runway is in sight and landing clearance has been obtained
12. You are number 2 on the inside of a turn in IMC when you lose sight of number 1. What will you do?
b. Reduce power momentarily and tell number 1 to roll out.
13. When will you stack level on a formation approach?
b. Once you break out of the weather
14. Number 2 should ______ when recovering to the overhead pattern.
b. be on the outside of the turns
15. During a formation landing, ______.
c. number 1 should plan to land 1000 feet down the runway
1. What are the three primary number 1 responsibilities during formation flight? (B/1/1)
- a. Clearing for the flight
- b. Planning
- c. Monitoring number 2
2. What are number 2’s communication responsibilities? (B/1/2)
- a. Monitors communications
- b. Responds to number 1
- c. Maintains radio discipline
- Number 1 has the following communication responsibilities:
- a. Communicates for the flight
- b. Keep flight on frequency
- c. Squawks for the flight
- d. Maintains radio discipline
3. How does number 1 accomplish a frequency change during formation flight? (B/1/3)
- a. Initiate
- b. Change
- c. Check-in
4. What are the characteristics of proper visual signals in formation flight? (B/1/4)
- a. Appropriate time
- b. Contrasting background
- c. Acknowledgment
- d. Current flight condition
7. What are the number 1 and number 2 responsibilities for clearing in formation flight? (B/1/7)
- a. Number 1:
- 1) Clears for the flight
- 2) Knows number 2’s position
- 3) Loosens formation to help clear if required
- b. Number 2:
- 1) Knows number 1’s position
- 2) Helps clear flight
- 3) Stays aware
8. What situations require a “KNOCK IT OFF” call? (B/1/8)
- a. Maneuver will take you out of the area
- b. Unbriefed or unscheduled flight enters the area
- c. Minimum altitude or cloud clearance is approached
- d. Situational awareness is lost
- e. A radio failure is recognized
- f. Any aircraft rocks its wings
- g. A member calls “knock-it-off”
- h. Dangerous situation is developing
- i. Bingo fuel is overflown and fuel state requires traffic priority or direct routing to recovery base
- j. An over-G occurs
9. If number 1 aborts a formation takeoff after brake release, what should number 2 do? (C/1/1)
- a. During an interval takeoff, number 2 will also abort
- b. During a wing takeoff, number 2 will normally continue the takeoff
10. When should number 1 retract the gear and flaps during a formation takeoff? (C/1/2)
a. After checking number 2 is safely airborne and passing 110 KIAS
minimumNote: Delay turns until 140 KIAS and 400 feet AGL minimum
11. What are the restrictions and procedures for an interval takeoff? (C/1/3)
- a. Used when wind or runway conditions dictate
- b. Minimum weather 1500 feet and 3 miles
- c. Number 1 uses full power until 160 KIAS
- d. Number 2 delays 6 seconds
- e. Number 2 uses full power for takeoff
- f. Straight ahead or turning rejoin
12. What are the three steps used to correct formation position? (C/2/1)
- a. Make a small input to initiate the correction
- b. Observe the reaction to the correction
- c. Adjust the correction as necessary
13. What parameters define route position? (C/2/2)
- a. Line abreast to 30° line
- b. Slightly below
- c. Two ship widths to 500 feet
14. How should number 2 be positioned during turns in route formation? (C/2/3)
- a. Maintain echelon vertical reference for turns away
- b. During turns toward, descend as necessary to keep number 1 in sight and remain below number 1’s flight path
15. What are the three types of formation pursuit? (D/1/1)
- a. Lead –Velocity vector in front of number 1
- b. Pure – Velocity vector pointed at number 1
- c. Lag – Velocity vector behind number 1
16. How will number 1 signal a turning rejoin? (D/1/2)
Number 1 will rock wings or use radio
17. When is number 1 required to call out airspeed during a rejoin? (D/1/3)
Number 1 should call airspeed changes greater than 10 KIAS from prebriefed airspeed.
18. While flying a turning rejoin you notice an excessive rate of closure. What should you do? (D/1/4)
19. What are the maneuvering limitations associated with close trail? (D/1/5)
Approximately 90° angle of bank, 2 - 3 Gs, and minimum of 120 knots
20. What are the procedures for the lost wingman on final approach? (D/1/6)
- a. Momentarily turn away from number 1
- b. Climb to FAF or glideslope intercept altitude
- c. Inform number 1 and obtain a separate clearance
- d. Fly new clearance or published missed
21. How do you do a formation missed approach? (D/2/1)
- a. Number 1 sets 75% power, establishes climb, retracts gear and flaps
- b. Number 2 maintains stack position and anticipates gear and flaps up
2. Which crew is responsible for keeping the formation within assigned airspace and accomplishing the mission profile?
4. On wing formation takeoff roll, number 1 should set power to _____% torque.
85 - 95
5. During a wing takeoff, if number 1 aborts after brake release, what action should number 2 normally take?
Number 2 should continue the takeoff
6. As number 1 of an interval takeoff, when the gear and flaps are retracted, maintain ____ KIAS until number 2 is in position.
7. What is the maximum angle of bank to be used during an echelon turn?
8. During turns away in route formation, what vertical reference should number 2 maintain?
The same vertical reference as an echelon turn
9. An overshoot in normally indicated by arriving in route with ________.
too much closure rate and/or too much angle off
10. During recovery, a NORDO aircraft in formation should normally fly the ______ position.
11. During an IMC turn toward you as number 2, you lose sight of number 1. What should you do?
Reduce power and tell number 1 to roll out.
12. During a traffic pattern and landing from a break, what side of the runway should number 1 land on?
The downwind side
13. Where is the nose of the aircraft pointing if you are in lead pursuit?
Ahead of the number 1 aircraft