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what are 4 main features about organisms in kingdom animalia?
- multicellular eukaryotes
- heterotrophs-by ingestion
- carbohydrates reserved as glycogen in liver and some muscle
- no cell walls, have extra-cellular matrix
what are the 3 types of cell junctions? Briefly describe each.
- tight junctions: no gap b/w 2 cells; fluid can't flow; prevents leakage of materials b/w cells
- desmosomes: no gap but fluid can flow in b/w; anchoring junction
- gap junctions: hole b/w 2 cells; communicating junction
In kingdom animalia, sexual reproduction is via _________________.
what is the 5 steps of development in animalia?
zygote--> blastula --> gastrula --> germ layers --> direct development to adult form or metamorphosis via larval form
what are the 4 types of tissue in animalia?
- connective tissue
- epithelial tissue
- muscle tissue
- nerve tissue
Animal may have arisen from something like _______________________.
How old are the oldest animal fossils? what is this period called?
- about 600 million years old
- Ediacaran fauna
when did the modern animal phyla appear?
545-525 million years ago = Cambrian explosion
why the sudden diversity of animals during th Cambrian explosion? (3)
- enough oxygen to allow active lifestyles
- evolution of predator-prey relationships
- evolution of Hox genes
what are Hox genes?
- small number of genes that coordinate development of different body parts in embryo
- (small change to these=big morphological changes)
when did animal diversity increase?
The current ___________________ has been the diversification of the surviving groups
describe the era 's and extinctions that animals have gone through since the Cambrian explosion. (6)
- Cambrian explosion
- Paleozoic era
- Permian mass extinction
- Mesozoic era
- mass extinction 65 mya
- Cenozoic era
what is the animal phylogeny, the branches that follow major innovations?
- protest ancestor= no true tissue (parazoa) AND true tissue (eumetazoa)
- true tissue (eumetazoa)= radial symmetry AND bilateral symmetry
- bilateral symmetry= details of embryonic development= molt AND don't molt
define radial symmetry.
any slice though central axis divides the body into mirror images
define bilateral symmetry.
only one slice divides the body into mirror images
briefly describe zygote, blastula, and gastrula.
- zygote: fertilized egg
- blastula: hollow ball
- gastrula: blastula that pinches in to form a primitive gut with 2 or 3 layers
what are the 3 germ layers and what part of the body are they responsible for?
- ectoderm (outer layer): "skin" & nervous system if present
- mesoderm (middle layer): muscle; connective tissue
- endoderm: (inner layer): inner lining of gut
what is the difference between diploblastic and triploblastic?
- diploblastic: having only 2 germ layers (endoderm & ectoderm)
- triploblastic: having all 3 germ layers
compare protostome and deuterostome development. (4)
- protosome development:
- spiral cleavage
- determinate cleavage (each cell is already determined to be which part of the body)
- 1st opening becomes mouth
- ventral nerve cord
- Deuterostome development:
- radial cleavage
- indeterminate cleavage (each cell not determined to be which part of the body)
- 1st opening becomes anus
- dorsal nerve cord
Are humans protostome or deuterostome?
why are protostomes called protostomes and deuterostomes called deuterostomes?
- protostomes means "mouth first"
- deuterostome means "second mouth"
The protostomes can be subdivided into 2 groups. Name and briefly describe them. give examples for each.
- ecdysozoa: animals that molt ex. arthropods and nematodes
- Lophotrochozoa: animals that don't molt ex. molluscs and annelid worms
what organisms are in the phylum porifera and what are the 3 main characteristics?
- phylum porifera are sponges
- no true tissues
- no symmetry
- filter feeders
describe the body of a sponge. (phylum porifera)
a porous "cup" with 2 cellular layers and "jelly" in between them
what are the 3 basic cell types in sponges (phylum porifera). Breifly describe each.
- epithelial cells: on outer surfaces
- choanocytes: generate current, capture food and incoming sperm
- amoebocytes: in jelly like layer; transports food to other cells, can transform into other cells, produce gametes, spicules or spongin
what are spicules and spongin and where are they produced?
- spicules: minerals
- spongin: protein
- produced by amoebocytes
describe the structure and 2 functions of spicules.
- small structures made of silica or CaCO3give stability and make body hard to eat
Give 2 points on sponges' (phylum porifera) life cycle.
- can reproduce asexually and sexually
- are hermaphrodites
briefly describe the sexual life reproduction of sponges (phylum porifera)
- sperm swim; eggs held in parent in jelly-like layer
- after egg and sperm fertilize, the flagellated planktonic larvae released and eventually settle on bottom
describe the 6 main characteristic of organisms in the phylum cnidaria.
- radial symmetry
- have cnidocytes in tentacles: stinging cells for prey capture and defence
- gastrovascular cavity: with one opening
- have muscles
- have nerve net: no brain or nerve cord
what are 2 body plans of organisms in the phylum cnidaria?
- a settled polyp
- a swimming medusa
what are some example of organisms from the phylum cnidaria?
jellyfish, anemones (polyp form) and corals
what are the organisms in phylum ctenophora and what are there 3 main characteristics?
- are comb jellies
- have 8 rows of cilia
- 2 retractable tentacles with no cnidocytes
what are some Platyhelminthes characteristics? (germ layers, symmetry, body cavity, body structure, organs, cavity)
- bilateral symmetry
- acoelomate (no body cavity)
- dorsa-ventrally flattened
- distinct organs and organs systems
- gastrovascular cavity (dead-end gut)
what are the 3 major classes of Platyhelminthes?
describe 2 characteristics of turbellaria in the phylum Platyhelminthes.
- free-living flatworms (not parasites)
- mostly marine
describe 2 characteristics of flukes (class trematoda) in phylum Platyhelminthes? what's an example?
- all are parasites
- complex life histories involving several hosts
- example: schistosoma
describe where tapeworms(class cestoda) in Platyhelminthes are found and how the feed? what is the proglottids?
- adults are parasites in guts of vertebrates
- attach to gut wall with a scolex , absorb minerals from the host (in intestines)
- proglottids: body, ribbon of repeating units
describe 2 main characteristics of phylum mollusca. describe the larvae for different species.
- many have calcium carbonate shell
- marine spp. have planktonic larvae
- terrestrial spp. have direct development
what are the 3 body regions in phylum mollusca?
- foot: locomotion
- visceral mass: internal organs
- mantle: drapes over viscera and secrete shell
what is the mantle cavity in phylum mollusca? what does in contain?
- space between mantle and visceral mass
- contains gills
what is the radula and which phylum is in found in?
- radula: rasping tongue
- found in phylum mollusca
what are the 4 mollusca classes?
what is one main characteristic of chitons? how do they feed?
- 8 dorsal shell plates
- at night- graze algae with radula
what does gastropoda translate too? describe the main structures of gastropods? (2) what are some examples? how do they feed?
- translate to "stomach foot"
- most have single coiled shell ex. snails
- some have lost shells ex. slugs
- most are herbivores; some predators
most shelled species in the class gastropoda in the phylum mollusca show torsion. what is it?
a twisting of the body
what are some organisms in the class bivalvia?
clams and friends
describe the physical structure of organisms in the class bivalvia? (2) how do they shells close?
- 2 shells
- hinged at mid-dorsal line
- shells close by abductor muscles
how do organisms in class bivalvia feed and exchange oxygen?
- use mucus-covered gills to filter feed (no radula)
- have siphons for oxygen exchange and to collect food when in deep water
what are some organisms in the class cephalopoda, what does this translate to mean?
- squid, octopus
- "head foot"
describe how the body regions are modified for the class cephalopoda in the phylum mollusca? (2)
- foot modified into arms for prey capture and to transfer sperm for males
- shell reduced
which classes in the phylum mollusca have closed circulatory systems?
- class cephalopoda only mollusc with close circulatory system
- rest have open (bivalves, gastropods, chitons)
which class in the phylum mollusca have a well developed nervous system and senses?
what is phylum annelida? describe their main organs and body structure.
- segmented worms
- segmented body has repeating secretory organs, segmented nerves and muscles
- have digestive tract, nerve cords, dorsal and ventral blood vessels that run length of body
how do organisms in phylum annelida undergo go gas exchange? what kind of environment does it require?
- gas exchange by diffusion across body wall
- requires moist/wet surface to absorb the oxygen from water
organisms in the phylum annelida have a hydrostatic skeleton. what is it?
longitudinal and circular muscles that push against fluid filled coelom (cavity)
what are some organisms in phylum annelida?
- polychaete worms
what do earthworms from phylum annelida eat and how is their shape significant?
- earthworms eat dead vegetation (sometimes in soil)
- torpedo shape adapted for burrowing in the soil
what are leaches from phylum annelida and how do they feed without blood clotting?
- blood sucker or predators
- feed by attaching anterior and posterior suckers to host.
- secrete hirudin which is an anticoagulant that stops blood from clotting
describe a characteristic of polychaete worms and their body structure. what do polychaete worms include?
- mostly marine
- have parapods: paddle-like bumps on each segment
- parapods carry many bristles called chaetaeincludes free-ranging bristleworms and tubeworms
what does phylum bryozoa translate too? how do they feed and what do they include?
- "moss animals"
- feed with a lophophore=structure carrying ciliated tentacles
- include encrust shells, seaweeds..tiny individuals form colonies
what does phylum brachiopoda translate too? who do they resemble, how do they feed? how are they settled on a substrate?
- "arm foot"
- resemble bivalves molluscs
- feed with lophophore
- settle by attaching to substrate with a stalk
what is the main difference regarding structure between phylum brachipoda and phylum mollusca?
- phylum brachiopoda have dorsal and ventral shells
- verses phylum molluscs that have left and right shells
what are phylum nematoda? Give 3 main features bout them.
- longitudinal muscles only
- most are tiny and free-living
- some are plant or animal parasites (ex. Ascaris)
In the phylum Nematoda, what must be molted?
protein cuticle must be molted
Does phylum nematoda have a body cavity., if so briefly describe it?
yes, pseudocoelem contains fluid under pressure
which phylum is the most successful animal group?
what does arthropoda mean and describe what makes them unique.
- "jointed leg animals"
- segmented body: but many segments fused to form body regions
In the phylum arthropoda, jointed appendages are modified for?
jointed appendages modified for walking, feeding and sensory reception
Does the phylum arthropoda have an exoskeleton or endoskeleton? briefly describe it.
exoskeleton made out of proteins, chitin and CaCO3 in some species
why do marine species in phylum arthropoda have CaCO3 in their exoskeleton? (2)
because it gives a harder exoskeleton and it gives buoyancy when in water
In the phylum arthropoda, what does molting allow?
molting allows for growth, metamorphosis and regeneration of lost appendages
what are the well-developed sensory organs in the phylum arthropoda and briefly describe each function.
- Compound eyes: for vision
- ocelli: only detects movement
- antennae: used for smell, for feel, can gauge speed of flight
What kind of circulatory system do arthropods have and how do they undergo gas exchange in both aquatic and terrestrial species.
- open circulatory system
- gas exchange via gills for aquatic species
- gas exchange via trachea (internal pipe system) or book lungs (internal radiator-like structure)
- blood not used to deliver oxygen but oxygen delivered straight by trachea
what are the 3 living subphylum for arthropods and give some examples for each.
- chelicerata: spiders, mites, scorpians
- uniramia: millipedes, centipedes, insects
- crustacea: crab, shrimp, barnacles
what are the 2 main characteristics of the subphylum chelicerata?
- have a pair of feeding appendages called chelicerae
- no antennae
Give 2 distinct feature of spiders in the subphylum chelicerata.
- chelicerae modified into poison fangs
- produce silk: for webs, drag lines, and egg covers
what is one unique feature of all subphylum uniramia?
one pair on antennae
describe the main features between millipedes and centipedes in the subphylum uniramia.
- millipedes: 2 pairs of legs per segment, herbivores and nocturnal
- centipedes: carnivores, poison claws in first segment behind head
what is 2 unique things about insects from subphylum uniramia and what are their 3 body regions and what are their functions?
- 3 pairs of legs
- have wings (2 pairs in most groups)
- head: hold sensory organs
- thorax: for locomotion
- abdomen: contains viscera (internal organs)
In the subphylum uniramia, How do they undergo gas exchange and lay eggs?
- tracheal system for gas exchange
- females lay eggs through an ovipositor
The are 2 main developments for insects in the subphylum uniramia, what are they and briefly describe the steps. Give an example for each.
Complete development: eggs--> larvae--> pupae--> adults ex. Caterpillar to butterfly
- Incomplete development: eggs--> nymphs--> adults ex. grasshopper
- smaller version of adults
In the subphylum uniramia, what are nymphs?
resemble adults but lack wings and functional gonads
In the subphylum uniramia, what is the advantage of complete development over incomplete development in insects?
- different stages are specialized for different responsibilities
- larvae: specialized for eating
- adults: dispersal stage and sex
what are 5 characteristics of organisms in the subphylum crustacea? (gas exchange, larvae, antennae, appendages, habitat?)
- 2 pairs on antennae
- 2 branched (biramous) appendages
- most are aquatic
- gas exchange via gills
- planktonic larvae (dispersal stage)
what organisms are included in the phylum Echinodermata? what kind of symmetry do they have in adults and in larvae?
- sea stars, brittle stars, urchins and sand dollars, sea cucumbers
- penta-radial symmetry in adults
- planktonic bilateral larvae
what are 2 main characteristics of organisms in the phylum Echinodermata?
- have a water vascular system which is a network of hydraulic canals that end at the tube feet Have CaCO3 ossicles in skin (ossicles=little bones)
what are 2 main characteristics of sea stars in the phylum Echinodermata?
- predators with 5+ arms
- suction cups on tube feet
Describe how and what sea stars from the phylum Echinodermata eat.
can pull apart bivalve shells and insert own stomach outside--> release digestive enzymes--> absorb and take stomach back inside
what are 2 main characteristics of brittle stars from the phylum Echinodermata?
- filter feeders
- no suction cups on tube feet
what do both urchins and sand dollars have in common from the phylum Echinodermata?
have 5 rows of tube feet
In the phylum Echinodermata, what is the shell if an urchin called and describe their spine.
- shell= test
- have movable spines
what do sand dollars from the phylum Echinodermata eat?
eat tiny particles collected from sand or water
what are 2 main characteristics of sea cucumbers from the phylum Echinodermata and what do they eat?
- 5 rows of tube feet
- eat small particles from sediment or water