Bio 1215- Chapter 7

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Bio 1215- Chapter 7
2014-03-09 17:12:48
Kingdom Animalia

Kingdom Animalia
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  1. what are 4 main features about organisms in kingdom animalia?
    • multicellular eukaryotes
    • heterotrophs-by ingestion
    • carbohydrates reserved as glycogen in liver and some muscle
    • no cell walls, have extra-cellular matrix
  2. what are the 3 types of cell junctions? Briefly describe each.
    • tight junctions: no gap b/w 2 cells; fluid can't flow; prevents leakage of materials b/w cells
    • desmosomes: no gap but fluid can flow in b/w; anchoring junction
    • gap junctions: hole b/w 2 cells; communicating junction
  3. In kingdom animalia, sexual reproduction is via _________________.
    flagellated sperm
  4. what is the 5 steps of development in animalia?
    zygote--> blastula --> gastrula --> germ layers --> direct development to adult form or metamorphosis via larval form
  5. what are the 4 types of tissue in animalia?
    • connective tissue
    • epithelial tissue
    • muscle tissue
    • nerve tissue
  6. Animal may have arisen from something like _______________________.
  7. How old are the oldest animal fossils? what is this period called?
    • about 600 million years old
    • Ediacaran fauna
  8. when did the modern animal phyla appear?
    545-525 million years ago = Cambrian explosion
  9. why the sudden diversity of animals during th Cambrian explosion? (3)
    • enough oxygen to allow active lifestyles
    • evolution of predator-prey relationships
    • evolution of Hox genes
  10. what are Hox genes?
    • small number of genes that coordinate development of different body parts in embryo
    • (small change to these=big morphological changes)
  11. when did animal diversity increase?
    Paleozoic era
  12. The current ___________________ has been the diversification of the surviving groups
    Cenozoic era
  13. describe the era 's and extinctions that animals have gone through since the Cambrian explosion. (6)
    • Cambrian explosion
    • Paleozoic era
    • Permian mass extinction
    • Mesozoic era
    • mass extinction 65 mya
    • Cenozoic era
  14. what is the animal phylogeny, the branches that follow major innovations?
    • protest ancestor= no true tissue (parazoa) AND true tissue (eumetazoa)
    • true tissue (eumetazoa)= radial symmetry AND bilateral symmetry
    • bilateral symmetry= details of embryonic development= molt AND don't molt
  15. define radial symmetry.
    any slice though central axis divides the body into mirror images
  16. define bilateral symmetry.
    only one slice divides the body into mirror images
  17. briefly describe zygote, blastula, and gastrula.
    • zygote: fertilized egg
    • blastula: hollow ball
    • gastrula: blastula that pinches in to form a primitive gut with 2 or 3 layers
  18. what are the 3 germ layers and what part of the body are they responsible for?
    • ectoderm (outer layer): "skin" & nervous system if present
    • mesoderm (middle layer): muscle; connective tissue
    • endoderm: (inner layer): inner lining of gut
  19. what is the difference between diploblastic and triploblastic?
    • diploblastic: having only 2 germ layers (endoderm & ectoderm)
    • triploblastic: having all 3 germ layers
  20. compare protostome and deuterostome development. (4)
    • protosome development:
    • spiral cleavage
    • determinate cleavage (each cell is already determined to be which part of the body)
    • 1st opening becomes mouth
    • ventral nerve cord

    • Deuterostome development:
    • radial cleavage
    • indeterminate cleavage (each cell not determined to be which part of the body)
    • 1st opening becomes anus
    • dorsal nerve cord
  21. Are humans protostome or deuterostome?
  22. why are protostomes called protostomes and deuterostomes called deuterostomes?
    • protostomes means "mouth first"
    • deuterostome means "second mouth"
  23. The protostomes can be subdivided into 2 groups. Name and briefly describe them. give examples for each.
    • ecdysozoa: animals that molt ex. arthropods and nematodes
    • Lophotrochozoa: animals that don't molt ex. molluscs and annelid worms
  24. what organisms are in the phylum porifera and what are the 3 main characteristics?
    • phylum porifera are sponges
    • no true tissues
    • no symmetry
    • filter feeders
  25. describe the body of a sponge. (phylum porifera)
    a porous "cup" with 2 cellular layers and "jelly" in between them
  26. what are the 3 basic cell types in sponges (phylum porifera). Breifly describe each.
    • epithelial cells: on outer surfaces
    • choanocytes: generate current, capture food and incoming sperm
    • amoebocytes: in jelly like layer; transports food to other cells, can transform into other cells, produce gametes, spicules or spongin
  27. what are spicules and spongin and where are they produced?
    • spicules: minerals
    • spongin: protein
    • produced by amoebocytes
  28. describe the structure and 2 functions of spicules.
    • small structures made of silica or CaCO3
    • give stability and make body hard to eat
  29. Give 2 points on sponges' (phylum porifera) life cycle.
    • can reproduce asexually and sexually
    • are hermaphrodites
  30. briefly describe the sexual life reproduction of sponges (phylum porifera)
    • sperm swim; eggs held in parent in jelly-like layer
    • after egg and sperm fertilize, the flagellated planktonic larvae released and eventually settle on bottom
  31. describe the 6 main characteristic of organisms in the phylum cnidaria.
    • radial symmetry
    • diploblastic
    • have cnidocytes in tentacles: stinging cells for prey capture and defence
    • gastrovascular cavity: with one opening
    • have muscles
    • have nerve net: no brain or nerve cord
  32. what are 2 body plans of organisms in the phylum cnidaria?
    • a settled polyp
    • a swimming medusa
  33. what are some example of organisms from the phylum cnidaria?
    jellyfish, anemones (polyp form) and corals
  34. what are the organisms in phylum ctenophora and what are there 3 main characteristics?
    • are comb jellies
    • have 8 rows of cilia
    • 2 retractable tentacles with no cnidocytes
  35. what are some Platyhelminthes characteristics? (germ layers, symmetry, body cavity, body structure, organs, cavity)
    • triploblastic
    • bilateral symmetry
    • acoelomate (no body cavity)
    • dorsa-ventrally flattened
    • distinct organs and organs systems
    • gastrovascular cavity (dead-end gut) 
  36. what are the 3 major classes of Platyhelminthes?
    • turbellaria
    • trematoda
    • cestoda
  37. describe 2 characteristics of turbellaria in the phylum Platyhelminthes.
    • free-living flatworms (not parasites)
    • mostly marine
  38. describe 2 characteristics of flukes (class trematoda) in phylum Platyhelminthes? what's an example?
    • all are parasites
    • complex life histories involving several hosts
    • example: schistosoma
  39. describe where tapeworms(class cestoda) in Platyhelminthes are found and how the feed? what is the proglottids?
    • adults are parasites in guts of vertebrates
    • attach to gut wall with a scolex , absorb minerals from the host (in intestines)
    • proglottids: body, ribbon of repeating units
  40. describe 2 main characteristics of phylum mollusca. describe the larvae for different species.
    • soft-bodied
    • many have calcium carbonate shell
    • marine spp. have planktonic larvae
    • terrestrial spp. have direct development
  41. what are the 3 body regions in phylum mollusca?
    • foot: locomotion
    • visceral mass: internal organs
    • mantle: drapes over viscera and secrete shell
  42. what is the mantle cavity in phylum mollusca? what does in contain?
    • space between mantle and visceral mass
    • contains gills
  43. what is the radula and which phylum is in found in?
    • radula: rasping tongue
    • found in phylum mollusca
  44. what are the 4 mollusca classes?
    • chitons
    • gastropods
    • bivalves
    • cephalopods
  45. what is one main characteristic of chitons? how do they feed?
    • 8 dorsal shell plates
    • at night- graze algae with radula 
  46. what does gastropoda translate too? describe the main structures of gastropods? (2) what are some examples? how do they feed?
    • translate to "stomach foot"
    • most have single coiled shell ex. snails
    • some have lost shells ex. slugs 
    • most are herbivores; some predators 
  47. most shelled species in the class gastropoda in the phylum mollusca show torsion. what is it?
    a twisting of the body 
  48. what are some organisms in the class bivalvia?
    clams and friends
  49. describe the physical structure of organisms in the class bivalvia? (2) how do they shells close?
    • 2 shells
    • hinged at mid-dorsal line
    • shells close by abductor muscles 
  50. how do organisms in class bivalvia feed and exchange oxygen?
    • use mucus-covered gills to filter feed (no radula)
    • have siphons for oxygen exchange and to collect food when in deep water 
  51. what are some organisms in the class cephalopoda, what does this translate to mean?
    • squid, octopus
    • "head foot"
  52. describe how the body regions are modified for the class cephalopoda in the phylum mollusca? (2)
    • foot modified into arms for prey capture and to transfer sperm for males
    • shell reduced 
  53. which classes in the phylum mollusca have closed circulatory systems?
    • class cephalopoda only mollusc with close circulatory system 
    • rest have open (bivalves, gastropods, chitons)
  54. which class in the phylum mollusca have a well developed nervous system and senses?
    class cephalopoda 
  55. what is phylum annelida? describe their main organs and body structure.
    • segmented worms
    • segmented body has repeating secretory organs, segmented nerves and muscles 
    • have digestive tract, nerve cords, dorsal and ventral blood vessels that run length of body
  56. how do organisms in phylum annelida undergo go gas exchange? what kind of environment does it require?
    • gas exchange by diffusion across body wall 
    • requires moist/wet surface to absorb the oxygen from water 
  57. organisms in the phylum annelida have a hydrostatic skeleton. what is it?
    longitudinal and circular muscles that push against fluid filled coelom (cavity)
  58. what are some organisms in phylum annelida?
    • earthworms 
    • leeches 
    • polychaete worms 
  59. what do earthworms from phylum annelida eat and how is their shape significant?
    • earthworms eat dead vegetation (sometimes in soil)
    • torpedo shape adapted for burrowing in the soil
  60. what are leaches from phylum annelida and how do they feed without blood clotting?
    • blood sucker or predators
    • feed by attaching anterior and posterior suckers to host.
    • secrete hirudin which is an anticoagulant that stops blood from clotting
  61. describe a characteristic of polychaete worms and their body structure. what do polychaete worms include?
    • mostly marine
    • have parapods: paddle-like bumps on each segment
    • parapods carry many bristles  called chaetae
    • includes free-ranging bristleworms and tubeworms 
  62. what does phylum bryozoa translate too? how do they feed and what do they include?
    • "moss animals"
    • feed with a lophophore=structure carrying ciliated tentacles 
    • include encrust shells, seaweeds..tiny individuals form colonies
  63. what does phylum brachiopoda translate too? who do they resemble, how do they feed? how are they settled on a substrate?
    • "arm foot" 
    • resemble bivalves molluscs
    • feed with lophophore
    • settle by attaching to substrate with a stalk 
  64. what is the main difference regarding structure between phylum brachipoda and phylum mollusca?
    • phylum brachiopoda have dorsal and ventral shells
    • verses phylum molluscs that have left and right shells 
  65. what are phylum nematoda? Give 3 main features bout them.
    • roundworms
    • longitudinal muscles only
    • most are tiny and free-living
    • some are plant or animal parasites (ex. Ascaris)
  66. In the phylum Nematoda, what must be molted?
    protein cuticle must be molted
  67. Does phylum nematoda have a body cavity., if so briefly describe it?
    yes, pseudocoelem contains fluid under pressure
  68. which phylum is the most successful animal group?
    phylum arthropoda
  69. what does arthropoda mean and describe what makes them unique.
    • "jointed leg animals"
    • segmented body: but many segments fused to form body regions
  70. In the phylum arthropoda, jointed appendages are modified for?
    jointed appendages modified for walking, feeding and sensory reception
  71. Does the phylum arthropoda have an exoskeleton or endoskeleton? briefly describe it.
    exoskeleton made out of proteins, chitin and CaCO3 in some species
  72. why do marine species in phylum arthropoda have CaCO3 in their exoskeleton? (2)
    because it gives a harder exoskeleton and it gives buoyancy when in water
  73. In the phylum arthropoda, what does molting allow?
    molting allows for growth, metamorphosis and regeneration of lost appendages
  74. what are the well-developed sensory organs in the phylum arthropoda and briefly describe each function.
    • Compound eyes: for vision
    • ocelli: only detects movement
    • antennae: used for smell, for feel, can gauge speed of flight
  75. What kind of circulatory system do arthropods have and how do they undergo gas exchange in both aquatic and terrestrial species.
    • open circulatory system
    • gas exchange via gills for aquatic species
    • gas exchange via trachea (internal pipe system) or book lungs (internal radiator-like structure)
    • blood not used to deliver oxygen but oxygen delivered straight by trachea
  76. what are the 3 living subphylum for arthropods and give some examples for each.
    • chelicerata: spiders, mites, scorpians
    • uniramia: millipedes, centipedes, insects
    • crustacea: crab, shrimp, barnacles
  77. what are the 2 main characteristics of the subphylum chelicerata?
    • have a pair of feeding appendages called chelicerae
    • no antennae
  78. Give 2 distinct feature of spiders in the subphylum chelicerata.
    • chelicerae modified into poison fangs
    • produce silk: for webs, drag lines, and egg covers
  79. what is one unique feature of all subphylum uniramia?
    one pair on antennae
  80. describe the main features between millipedes and centipedes in the subphylum uniramia.
    • millipedes: 2 pairs of legs per segment, herbivores and nocturnal
    • centipedes: carnivores, poison claws in first segment behind head
  81. what is 2 unique things about insects from subphylum uniramia and what are their 3 body regions and what are their functions?
    • 3 pairs of legs
    • have wings (2 pairs in most groups)
    • head: hold sensory organs
    • thorax: for locomotion
    • abdomen: contains viscera (internal organs)
  82. In the subphylum uniramia, How do they undergo gas exchange and lay eggs?
    • tracheal system for gas exchange
    • females lay eggs through an ovipositor
  83. The are 2 main developments for insects in the subphylum uniramia, what are they and briefly describe the steps. Give an example for each.
    • Incomplete development: eggs--> nymphs--> adults ex. grasshopper
    • smaller version of adults

    Complete development: eggs--> larvae--> pupae--> adults ex. Caterpillar to butterfly
  84. In the subphylum uniramia, what are nymphs?
    resemble adults but lack wings and functional gonads
  85. In the subphylum uniramia, what is the advantage of complete development over incomplete development in insects?
    • different stages are specialized for different responsibilities  
    • larvae: specialized for eating
    • adults: dispersal stage and sex
  86. what are 5 characteristics of organisms in the subphylum crustacea? (gas exchange, larvae, antennae, appendages, habitat?)
    • 2 pairs on antennae
    • 2 branched (biramous) appendages
    • most are aquatic
    • gas exchange via gills
    • planktonic larvae (dispersal stage)
  87. what organisms are included in the phylum Echinodermata? what kind of symmetry do they have in adults and in larvae?
    • sea stars, brittle stars, urchins and sand dollars, sea cucumbers
    • penta-radial symmetry in adults
    • planktonic bilateral larvae
  88. what are 2 main characteristics of organisms in the phylum Echinodermata?
    • have a water vascular system which is a network of hydraulic canals that end at the tube feet
    • Have CaCO3 ossicles in skin (ossicles=little bones)
  89. what are 2 main characteristics of sea stars in the phylum Echinodermata?
    • predators with 5+ arms
    • suction cups on tube feet
  90. Describe how and what sea stars from the phylum Echinodermata eat.
    can pull apart bivalve shells and insert own stomach outside--> release digestive enzymes--> absorb and take stomach back inside
  91. what are 2 main characteristics of brittle stars from the phylum Echinodermata?
    • filter feeders
    • no suction cups on tube feet
  92. what do both urchins and sand dollars have in common from the phylum Echinodermata?
    have 5 rows of tube feet
  93. In the phylum Echinodermata, what is the shell if an urchin called and describe their spine.
    • shell= test
    • have movable spines
  94. what do sand dollars from the phylum Echinodermata eat?
    eat tiny particles collected from sand or water
  95. what are 2 main characteristics of sea cucumbers from the phylum Echinodermata and what do they eat?
    • elongated
    • 5 rows of tube feet
    • eat small particles from sediment or water