NUR1020, Development across the lifespan,

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NUR1020, Development across the lifespan,
2014-02-14 21:23:30
Development across lifespan

Development across the lifespan
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  1. What is development/ growth?
    growth -> physical changes over time

    development-> adapting to one's environment over time
  2. principles of growth and development
    • g and d usually follow an orderly, predictable pattern:
    • -growth foolows a cephalocaudal pattern: head, chest, trunk, lower extremities.

    -development follows a proximodistal pattern: center of the body moving outward (eyes, lift head, rolling over, crawl, walk)

    - simple skills develop separately and independently, later integrated into more complex skills ( grasping, moving arm...-> eating)

    -each body system grows at it's own rate (e.g. reproductive system late-> puberty)

    -bodysystem functions become increasingly differentiated over time (e.g. newborns response to noise with whole body, later we might just cover our ears)
  3. Havighurst Theorie
    • developmental task= midway between an individual need and societal demand
    • failure to master the task leads to imbalance -> unhappiness, difficulty mastering future tasks and interactions
  4. Developmental Theory of Freud
    • Psychoanalytic theorie = focuses on motivation for human behavior + personality development
    • instinctual drives: libido, aggression, survival with varying emphases depending on age

    • ID -> urges, pleasure, gratification(dominant in children and infants)
    • EGO-> start to develop 4-6 months, balance between what is wanted (ID) and what is possible to obtain/achieve
    • Superego->early childhood, our conscious
    • Unconscious mind-> thoughts and memories that can't be easily recalled
    • Defense Patterns-> pattern of behavior the ego employs in the face of threat
  5. Developmental theorie of Piaget
    • cognitive development theory (birth  to adolescence ) through
    • -adaptation: ability to adjust and interact with environment
    • -assimilation:integrating of new experiences with own knowledge system
    • -accommodation: change of one's system of knowledge as a result of processing new experiences

    • 4 stages:
    • sensorimotor
    • preoperational thought
    • concrete operations
    • formal operations

    • child must complete each stage to get to the next step
    • speed depending on inherited intellect and environment
  6. Erik Erikson widely used in nursing and healthcare
    • theory of psychosocial development
    • (development through the lifespan)

    • 8 stages through the lifespan
    • -most individuals develop successfully from stage to stage
    • - regress to earlier stage possible through stress
    • -forced to later stages early through unforeseen life stages (e.g. terminal illness) 
  7. the 8 stages of Erik Erikson
    • 1. trust versus mistrust
    • 2. autonomy vs. shame and doubt
    • 3. initiative vs. guilt
    • 4. industry vs. inferiority
    • 5. identity vs. role confusion
    • 6. intimicy vs. isolation
    • 7. generativity vs. stagnation
    • 8. ego integrity vs. despair 
    • 7
  8. Lawrence Kohlberg
    • studied on males
    • moral development-> able to think higher level (some people are not achieving this level)
  9. Carol Gilligan
    • research subjects female
    • 1 caring for oneself
    • 2 caring for others
    • 3 caring for oneself and others
  10. James Fowler
    • faith as a universal concern and process of growing in trust
    • stages of faith development
    • prestage and 6 stages of faith