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Ploidy of gametophyte and sporophyte
- Gametohpyte: haploid
- Sporophyte: diploid
Characteristics of extant vascular plants
- vascular tissue: xylem and phloem
- multicelullar roots and leaves
- sphorophyte dominant
- have sphorophylls
- vascular tissue
- -for strength
- Vascular tissue
- transport nutrients
what is the dominant life cycle in vascular plants?
- sphorophyte dominant
- not nutritionally dependent on gametophyte
What is the function of sporophylls in vascular plants?
they are modified leaves that hold sporangia
What is the function of sporangia?
They are the spore producing organ in vascular plants.
What two structures allowed terrestrial adaptation in vascular plants?
sporangia and sporopollenin walls.
What type of spore production do seed plants undergo?
Heterosporous spore production. Mega and micro spores are produced forming the male and female gametes.
What type of spore production do seedless vascular plants undergo?
Homosporous reproduction. One type of gametophyte.
What phylum are quill worts, club mosses, and spike mosses in?
What phylum are ferns, horsetails, and whisk ferns in?
What are the characteristics of seedless vascular plants?
- sporophyte dominant (same as vascular)
- need water to reproduce
How are seedless vascular plants fertilized?
Water is required for fertilization in order for the sperm to swim and reach the egg. Therefore they can only inhabit damp environments.
- seedless vascular plant
- produced clustered sporangia
Sporangia in Ferns
- Crow in clusters on underside of leaves (called sori).
- catapulted from parent plants or are carried by wind
What phylums contributed to the coal we use today?
Lycophyta and Pterophyta. formed during carboniferous period.
What is the most species rich gymnosperm?
- cold dry habitats
- all associated with human habitation
- often chosen for street trees
- large cones and palm like leaves
- don't resemble conifers
- tropical or live in deserts
Gymnosperm vs. Angiopserm
- G-naked seed (like on pine cones)
- A-container/vessel (seeds are within fruit)
- have a relatively "naked" seed
- ovule and seed develop on surface of sporophylls (usually in cones)
What are the four phyla of Gymnosperm?
- 1. Ginkgophyta
- 2. Gnetophyta
- 3. Cycadophyta
- 4. Coniferophyta
Where are the Sporangia located on Gynosperms?
located on the scale like leaves (sporophylls) in clusters, making up the cones
What type of sporangia are on a full grown tree (gymnosperms)
mega and micro on different branches
What is the purpose of a pollen grain?
To carry the sperm to the ovule, better system than non seed plants who require humid environments.
Define a seed
an embryo wrapped in nutrients for protection
Where is the Megaspore produced (1n)
inside the megasporangium (2n)
What makes up the ovule?
integuments, megasporangium and megaspore
Where is the microspore (1n) produced?
inside the microsporangium (2n)
What is the purpose of sporopollenin?
coats pollen grains to protect them (drying, UV etc)
What is dominant and dependent in seed plants?
sporophytes are dominant and gametopythes are dependent.
What is dominant in Bryophytes?
What is dominant in seedless vascular plants?
sporophytes are dominant and gametophytes are independent
List the five innovations of seed plants
- 1. dependent gametophyte (protected)
- 2. Heterospory
- 3. Ovules
- 4. Pollen
- 5. Seeds
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