Chapter 6 - Bones and Skeletal Tissues (Vocabulary)

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lonelygirl
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262067
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Chapter 6 - Bones and Skeletal Tissues (Vocabulary)
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2014-02-15 02:15:25
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Biology 103 A
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  1. perichondrium
    fibrous, connective tissue membrane covering the external surface of cartilaginous structures
  2. chondrocytes
    mature cell of cartilage
  3. hyaline cartilage
    firm support but pliable
  4. articular cartilage
    hyaline cartilage cushions areas within joints
  5. costal cartilages
    connect the ribs to the sternum (breastbone)
  6. respiratory cartilages
    forms the skeleton of the larynx (voicebox) and reinforce other respiratory passageways
  7. nasal cartilages
    supports the external nose
  8. elastic cartilage
    greater elasticity
  9. fibrocartilage
    bundling of collagen provides strong support and ability to withstand compression
  10. appositional growth
    growth accomplished by the addition of new layers onto those previously formed
  11. interstitial growth
    growth from inside
  12. axial skeleton
    bones of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage
  13. appendicular skeleton
    bones of the upper and lower limbs and the girdles (shoulder bones and hip bones) that attach the limbs to the axial skeleton
  14. long bones
    longer than they are wide, example: forearm
  15. short bones
    roughly cube shaped, example: ankle
  16. seasmoid bones
    a special type of short bone that form in a tendon, example: patella. They vary in size and number in different individual. They act to alter the direction of pull of a tendon.
  17. flat bones
    thin, flattened, and usually a bit curved, example: sternum, scapulae, ribs, and most skull bones.
  18. irregular bones
    complicated shapes that fit none of the preceding classes, example: vertebrae and hip bones
  19. Function of bones
    • 1. Support
    • 2. Protection
    • 3. Movement
    • 4. Mineral and growth factor storage
    • 5. Blood cell formation
    • 6. Triglyceride (fat) storage
    • 7. Hormone production
  20. trabeculae
    a honeycomb of small needle-like or flat pieces, a structural unit of spongy bone (cancellous bone tissue)
  21. dipole
    the internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones
  22. diaphysis
    elongated shaft of a long bone
  23. medullar cavity
    central cavity of a long bone, contains yellow or red (bone) marrow
  24. yellow marrow cavity
    contains fat (yellow marrow)
  25. epiphyses (Singular: epiphysis)
    the end of a long bone, attached to the shaft
  26. epiphyseal line
    between the diaphysis and each epiphysis of an adult long bone
  27. epiphyseal plate
    a disc of hyaline cartilage that grows during childhood to lengthen bone
  28. periosteum
    a glistening white, double-layered membrane, covers the external surface of the entire bone except the joint surfaces and provides anchoring points for tendons and ligaments and contains osteogenic cells that can differentiate into other bone cells
  29. endosteum
    a delicate connective tissue, covers internal bone surfaces and the trabeculae of spongy bone and lines the canals that pass through the compact bone and contain osteogenic cells that can differentiate into other bone cells
  30. osteoprogenitor/ osteogenic cells
    bone stem cells
  31. osteoblasts
    immature bone cell that synthesizes and secretes large amount of uncalcified ECM
  32. osteoid
    unmineralized bone
  33. osteocyte
    fully mature bone cell, maintain matrix
  34. osteoclast
    phagocytic WBC that re-absorbs bone ECM

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